Welcome to

Prof. Haytham Ibrahim

Website # 1

For Teaching ARABIC Language

to natives and non-natives in  


Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia - Since 2006

by Prof. Haytham Ibrahim


Author and creator of

Learn Real Arabic Linguistic System


New Revolution in Learning Arabic Language

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Who is Haytham Ibrahim?

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Haytham Ibrahim, Ph.D.
is a well known native Arabic language lecturer and books Author, based in beautiful Malaysia.

He is the Author and creator of  Learn Real Arabic Linguistic System; also, he is the first Arabic Language Lecturer using Tony Buzan’s Mind Map™ System in Teaching Arabic Language.

Haytham Works as an Arabic lecturer and Arabic English translation expert and Arab cultural and etiquette consultant for many companies and leading businesses in Malaysia.

Haytham is considered as an Arabic language guru to many master and Ph.D. Arabic academic students at many universities in Kuala Lumpur.

Haytham Ibrahim has over 15 years of experience in professional Arabic language training, consulting, and education. He served at a public university, a government department, and leading Islamic associations. Currently he is an Arabic language lecturer in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia.

Haytham Ibrahim is also a consultant and trainer in the field of Arabic linguistics and phonetics. Since 1998, he has been actively involved and personally delivered more than one thousand lectures in seminars, training and academic programs and also consultancy services.

In the course of his work and study he has delivered lectures/training/consulting in the following countries: - Egypt - Bahrain - UAE - Qatar - Oman - Saudi Arabia – Sudan - France - Malaysia.

He has managed professional training programs ranging from 1 day talk to 17 days international integrated course on Arabic language learning and Islamic studies. He was one of pioneer trainers and consultants; he is a trainer and consultant on Arabic linguistics and phonetics.

Recently he was appointed as the adviser and consultant for many universities in Kuala Lumpur.

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Before You Start!

A Message From Haytham!

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Hi There,
My name is Haytham Ibrahim – highly qualified Arabic language instructor, teaching Arabic as a second/foreign language.

I've been teaching Arabic to non natives for more than 15 years. I've tried countless of methodologies but unfortunately, I’ve realized that there aren't any methodologies which can explain how to learn Arabic within a short period of time.

As a Result, I've decided to develop my own method which would obtain immediate results. My classes are always a total personalization. You will never need to adapt to any preconceived system. I always construct a lesson based on each individual needs.

Courses which I created are always inline with common Arabian countries framework of reference for Language procedure. Thus, you could sit for all major Arabic examinations.

For the past seven years, I have been encountering 100% of succession rate with all my students who undertaken my course.

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In a Professional Way,


with a proven new system;

I WILL guide YOU

Step by Step – In A Systematic Way,

To Get the Following International


Certificates With Excellence!


(1) International MSA Certificate

(2) International TAFL Certificate

(3) Classical Arabic Certificate

(4) Quranic Arabic Certificate

(5) Colloquial Arabic (4 Most Common Dialects)

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(I)
* Do YOU Think That Arabic is Difficult to Learn?

(II)

** Have YOU tried to buy a book or books to learn Arabic, and YOUR skills still the same?

(III)

*** Have YOU joined An Arabic class before and YOUR level still the same?

(IV)

**** Many of Non-Arabic Natives May Know How to Read Qur'an, But they Do Not Understand the Meanings; Are YOU One of Them?

?

Just follow my System And YOU Will Discover That Arabic is Easier than Spanish!


My System Solves All Of Your Problems
in Learning Arabic language,

And much more...

To know
The details,


Please keep on Reading…


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* My Qualifications

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+ (1998)
- Cairo University-Linguistic Dept. - Arabic Language

+ (2000 – 2001)
- The Holy Qur'an Phonetics and Tajweed Certificate

+ (2002 – 2003)
- Arabic Language Phonetics Certificate at Al Azhar University

+ (2003 – 2004)
- English Phonetics Certificate at the British Council

+ International Certificates & Awards
- MSA Certified Tester (Al-Noor int’l Language Center)
- Classical Arabic Certified Tester
- TAFL Certified Instructor
- ALPT Certified Tester

+ Research & Inventions
- Arabic Language Teaching Methodologies (Non-Natives)
- Linguistics Researcher
- Author and Inventor of Learn Real Arabic Linguistic System
- Terminologist

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Credentials

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+ Certified as "Professional Translator" by Arab Professional Translators Society.

+ Member of Arab Translators Network (ATN-APTS).

+ Member of Arabic Translation and Intercultural Dialogue Association (ATIDA).

+ Member of Arabic Localization Team.

+ Member of ETA.

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Why Learn Arabic?

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+ 500 + million people speak Arabic and they are increasing.

+ 1.7 + billion Muslim worldwide want to learn Arabic for religion purpose.

+ It is the 4th most spoken language of the world.

+ It's the language of a region with a very different culture.

+ Do you want to learn the Arabic language?

+ Do you want to enhance what you already know about it?

+ Do you want to learn to speak Arabic it in the country where it is spoken?

Learn Arabic with Prof. Haytham and be enthralled by one of the most spoken languages in the world!

The Arabic language is the fourth most spoken language in the world with more than two hundred million speakers. It is the language of the holy book of Islam the Qur’an, and it is used throughout the Muslim world.

The Arabic language has many sub languages and dialects but the language used in the Qur’an, Classical Arabic, has been adapted as Modern Standard Arabic and it is used in newspapers, books, radio and television, in the mosques and in conversation between educated Arabs from different countries.

Modern Standard Arabic (M.S.A) has been the literary and the liturgical language of Islam since the seventh century. It is the official language of all Arab countries and it is the only form of Arabic taught in schools at all stages.

Learning Arabic takes time and practice but it is not that difficult to learn.

Study Arabic with Mr. Haytham and be among the millions who speak this interesting language!

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20+ Reasons to Learn Arabic

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Because You are one of the Following:


1. A Diplomat

2. Working as a P.A

3. An Air-stewardess / air-steward

4. Working with NGOs

5. Traveling to Arabian Country soon

6. Going to be posted in Arabian country

7. Working in an Arabian company

8. Working in Malaysian government

9. Needs to call Arabian speaking country

10. Migrating to an Arabic speaking country

11. A shopaholic

12. Working with an Arabic superior

13. Involving in luxury cosmetics, industry

14. An Arabian culture interested

15. A fan of an Arabic cuisine lover

16. An Arabic literature / cinema / music lover

17. In love with an Arabian man / woman

18. Planning to marry/married to an Arabic man or woman

19. Just fascinated with all the Arabic culture and history

20. A Candidate to sit for the following examinations: International M.S.A or Classical Arabic.

21. A Student that you Already Study Arabic Language

22. A Student at the Islamic University or Any related University and You want Arabic Assistance. To gain Excellent Grades


...Any YES For the above Means...This is the Right Moment to Contact Me!

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* My Approach *

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Academic Method VS Pragmatic Method


1- Academic Method:

Academic method is the traditional teaching method. It emphasizes on too much memorization of grammar, rules, verbs, tenses before you could speak.
At the end of this method and learning process, YOUR mind will be full with grammars and therefore it is almost impossible to associate all these elements to build a sentence or a question.

1. Try to speak Arabic

2. Learn advanced tenses

3. Learn advanced grammar

4. Learn vocabulary

5. Learn grammar

6. Learn irregular verbs

7. Learn verb forms

8. Learn the three types of verbs

9. Learn basic information

10. Greetings and say YOUR name


2- Pragmatic Method:

The Pragmatic method which I've Designed over my past 10 years of teaching experience, will allow me to teach you only what you needed. It is easy, simple and straight forward. With pragmatic method, it enables you to shorten the tedious tradition learning process tactfully with elimination of unnecessary grammars, rules, verbs and tenses. As soon as you have mastered the basic tools, it will basically allow you to start creating YOUR own sentences and any common types of questions. Be able to speak Arabic in early learning stage will boost YOUR confidence and thus will motivate you to accelerate further to higher levels.

1. Pronunciation and advanced phonetics

2. Basic Arabic language information

3. Speak Arabic language information

4. Speak Arabic by making simple sentence

5. Get confidence

6. Make questions and start to communicate in Arabic

7. Learn verb forms and polish YOUR Arabic

8. Learn Grammar if necessary

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10 Most Common FEARS To Speak Arabic

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1. My accent is terrible.

2. I can’t pronounce most of Arabic words.

3. I can’t understand what my teacher is telling me.

4. I can’t memorize grammar.

5. I do not have confidence to speak Arabic.

6. Arabic is too complicated to remember.

7. I just can’t compile so many information.

8. My schedule is too tight and I do not have time.

9. I am shy!

10. I will not be able to speak Arabic no matter how I tried....

Put All Of The Above Aside And Start with the basic tools I’ve designed. You will realize that the learning Arabic is simple, easy and straight forward.

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Some Pitfalls to Avoid...

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Frustration.

Frustration is part of learning a language. Early on in the process of learning Arabic, students should prepare for the normal feelings of frustration. Each of us has different talents and challenges, but when it comes to language learning, all of us feel some frustration. Remember, frustration is not all bad: it promotes growth and builds strength.

Unreasonable Expectations.
Many students have unreasonable expectations about the rate of progress in reading and listening comprehension, vocabulary assimilation, and, achieving “fluency.” Mastering Arabic is a lifelong endeavor. If you focus only on how far you have to go, it will inevitably be very discouraging. Recognize the progress you have made. In fact, you can learn a lot in one semester or term. We cannot emphasize that enough. It is all a question of attitude. Some students feel that Arabic is a perilous mountain with crags and precipices awaiting the faint of heart. Looking only up at the mountain can be discouraging. Stay focused on the big picture, and climb the mountain one step at a time.

Do not worry about short vowels.
Get used to reading and writing Arabic from the start without the diacritics that are used to indicate short vowels. Writing these is unnatural for Arabs, and should be so for you as well. Short vowel markings are typically only used for children’s books and religious texts. Even though you will not read them, learn them and how they work. Like all other aspects of the language, YOUR control of short vowels will increase gradually as YOUR overall proficiency in the language expands.

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Which Arabic Course?

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1- M.S.A

2- TAFL

3- Specific Arabic Country Dialect.

4- Classical Arabic.

5- Quranic Arabic (The Qur'an and Tafsir see Course#17)

Contact Me; to start YOUR Arabic language course No matter what YOUR level is! With my Teaching Methodologies; YOU Can Start From Zero to Hero!

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Classes Offered, See Below

( 25 Courses )

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COURSE # 1

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* Course Title:


Arabic Language Discovery (12 Hours)

* Objective:


+ Be able to know more about Arabic culture and Arabic style.

* Who should enroll?

+ This class is recommended for those who are curious about the language but with less commitment.

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COURSE # 2

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* Course Title
:

Arabic Culture and Habits (12 Hours)

* Objective:


+ This is not a compulsory class it is strongly recommended to those who wanted to know more about Arabic lifestyle.

* Who should enroll?

+ For those who needs to interact and coordinate with Arabic.

+ For those who wanted to understand Arabic countries and Arabic Language.

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COURSE # 3

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* Course Title
:

Beginner Arabic Language

(5 Weeks / Customized Course)

* Objective:

+ Be able to communicate with Arabic for common purposes of the life with the usage of present tense.

+ Be able to speak, Read and write Basic Arabic and be understood.

+
Acquire general Arabic - life scenarios.

+ Talk about yourself, your family members and your friends or colleagues.

+ Say what you like, dislike, and answer when someone asks you question on same subjects.

+ Talk about someone or your family and mention what they like or don’t like.

+ You will be introduced to the Learn Real Arabic Linguistic System, The revolution in linguistics.


* Who should enroll?

+
Beginners with level Zero.

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COURSE # 4

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* Course Title:

Intermediate Arabic Language

(30 hours)

* Objective:

+ Be able to communicate with Arabic for common purposes of the life with the usage of present, past, future and conditional tenses.

+ Acquire intermediate level of Arabic - life scenarios.

* Who should enroll?

+ Those who have completed the beginner Arabic language - 20 HRS or already have a basic knowledge of Arabic language.

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COURSE # 5

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* Course Title:

Advanced Arabic Language

(50 to 70 hours)

* Objective:

+ Be able to have full fluent conversation in Arabic Language.

* Who should enroll?

+ Independent speaker with minimal assistance.

+ Those who have completed the intermediate Arabic language - 60 hours or already have basic knowledge of Arabic language.

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COURSE # 6

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* Course Title:

Academic Arabic for Students

(Specific for Academic Examination)


Note: Course duration will be based on student's current level in the school preparation for MSA and Classical Arabic or other examinations.

* Objective:

+ Be able to sit for Arabic Exams: MSA and TAFL

* Who should enroll?


+ International and local universities and school students who wish to sit for the above examinations.

+ Colleges, universities & post - graduates students who wish to sit for the above examinations.

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COURSE # 7

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* Course Title:

Last Minute Crash Course

(16 Hours or 1 Weekend)

* Objective:

+ Be able to speak basic Arabic language for an imperative need.

* Who should enroll?

+
For those who has an urgent needs to speak Arabic.

+
Individual who need to travel or require visiting an Arabic speaking country urgently

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COURSE # 8

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* Course Title:

Arabic for Hospitality,

Hotel Management and Tourism

(25 Hours)

* Objective:

+ Be able to communicate with clients and guests on common requests & enquirers.

* Who should enroll?


+ Individual and students who wish to venture in hospitality, hotel management and tourism industry.

+ Hospitality, hotel management and tourism staff who require to learn Arabic for the nature of their profession.

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COURSE # 9

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* Course Title:

Arabic for Business and Corporate

(25 Hours)

* Objective:


+ Be able to converse in Arabic Language by utilizing all business jargons and customary phrase in daily conglomerate operation.

+ Arabic for Business: I teach business leaders the terminology of the Arabic Business language in the Middle East, and how to start up a new business in an Arabic environment (laws and regulations)


* Who should enroll?

+ Business Men or Women or executives who deals with Arabic or involved in Arabic speaking countries establishment.

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COURSE # 10

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* Course Title:

Arabic for P.A & Secretaries

(30 Hours)

* Objective:

+ Be able to manage daily secretarial tasks and functions for Arabian superior.

+ Be able to communicate basic Arabic with clients, suppliers, and business partners.

+ Be able to correspondence in Arabic through email, letters and documents.

* Who should enroll?

+
Secretaries working in Arabian companies / NGOs.

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COURSE # 11

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* Course Title:

Arabic for Government,

Embassies and Diplomacy (40 Hours)

* Objective:

+ Be able to communicate, converse and correspondence in Arabic by using specific diplomacy terms.

+ Be able to show proficiency as a diplomat, ambassador and important authority.

+ Arabic for Diplomats: Special and fast program to get diplomats posted to the Middle East, familiar with the language of a certain Arab country and its culture.

+ Educational course customized for New Diplomats posted to the Middle East: Get to know the language, dialect and the culture of the country you are about to move to. This program will assist new diplomat and employee at Embassies abroad to know the culture differences, the appropriate approach, and ways to reach out to communities.

* Who should enroll?

+ Government, embassy personnel, local or foreign authority.

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COURSE # 12

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* Course Title:

Arabic for Travelers

(30 Hours)

* Objective:

+
Be able to get most out of a visit in Arabian speaking countries.

* Who should enroll?

+
Anyone who wishes to visit an Arabic speaking country.
Travelers.

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COURSE # 13

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* Course Title:

Arabic for Flight Attendants

(30 Hours)

* Objective:

+
Be able to communicate in Arabic with passengers

* Who should enroll?

+
Stewardesses and stewards.

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COURSE # 14

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* Course Title:

Spoken Arabic &

Conversational Workshop


Note: Course duration varies between individual and expectations

* Objective:

+
To converse and communicate in Arabic

* Who should enroll?


+ For those who already have a good foundation (grammar/verbs/tenses/rules) in the language but still unable to speak.

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COURSE # 15

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* Course Title:

Arabic Literature

(30 Hours)

* Objective:


+ To discover and learn about the distinctiveness of Arabic literature and explanation of its eccentric idiosyncratic.

* Who should enroll?


+ For those who retain a strong passion in discovering and understanding Arabic poetry, novels & theater.

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COURSE # 16

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* Course Title:

Arabic for Children:

Starting 11+ years old (40 Hours)



* Objective:

+
Be able to interact in Arabic in early age.

+
Be able to sit for MSA junior.

* Who should enroll?

+
For parents who wish to send their children to Arabic environment.

+
For parents who wishes their children to obtain an extra language skills.

+ Join the 9 Months Program and give your child a chance to Speak Arabic like a native in early Age.

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COURSE # 17

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* Course Title:

Quranic Arabic

(The Holy Quran Course)

NOTE: I Teach the 10 Ways of Narration of the Holy Quran. (For More Information Contact Me)

A) For All Ages

* Objective:

+ Prepare yourself to study the Holy Quran (Tajweed & Tafsir)

+ Do you feel that you always forget what you already memorized in Quran?

+ You want to learn how to read the right and correct way of the Holy Quran?

+ You want to understand the meaning of words and Tafsir and Hadith?

+ A Lot of Non Arabic Natives May Know How to Read Quran But they Do Not Understand the Meanings; Are YOU One of Them?

* Who should enroll?

If YOU answer YES for any question from the above, contact me to start YOUR schedule.


B) For Children: Starting 11+ years old


Note: Course duration varies between individual and expectations
Prepare YOUR Child from Now!

* Objective:

+ Be able to interact and memorize the Holy Quran in Arabic in early age.

+ Be able to sit for Quranic Classical Arabic junior.

* Who should enroll?

+ For parents who are planning to send their child abroad to study Islamic Religion Sciences.

+ Help YOUR child to memorize the holy Quran in early age and to interact in Arabic language environment.

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COURSE # 18

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* Course Title:


Egyptian Colloquial Arabic (E.C.A)

Details: See Below…

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COURSE # 19


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* Course Title:

Syrian Colloquial Arabic (S.C.A)

Details: See Below…

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COURSE # 20

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* Course Title:

GULF Colloquial Arabic (G.C.A)

Details: See Below…

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COURSE # 21


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* Course Title:

Jordan Colloquial Arabic (J.C.A)

Details: See Below…

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* Customized Courses *

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COURSE # 22

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( 9 Months )

Intensive Arabic Course


Speak Arabic Like a Native!

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* Course Title
:

(MSA Complete Course - 15 Levels)

You Will be Prepared to Get MSA International Certificate

Study a Customized Arabic Course For 9 Months To Speak Arabic Like a Native!

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For More Information  About This Course, E-mail Me

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COURSE # 23

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* Course Title


Complete Arabic Grammar Course

(Nahw and Sarf)

By Completing This Course YOU Will Master Arabic Language.

YOU Will Study The Following Material:

(1) Al-Lugah (Lexicon)

In this Course it is concerned with collecting and explaining vocabulary.

(2) At-ta-rif (Morphology)

In this Course it Determines the form of the individual words.

(3) Al-ishtiqaq (derivation = Word Stemming)

In this Course it is Primarily concerned with Examining the origin of the words.

(4) an-na-hw (syntax)

In this Course it is Primarily concerned with inflection (i-rab) which had already been lost in dialects.

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For More Information About This Course, E-mail Me

 
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COURSE # 24

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* Course Title

(TAFL Complete Course)

+ You will be prepared to Get International TAFL Certificate

+ Customized Course for Teacher to Teach Arabic Language as a second Language (TAFL)

* Objective: To Introduce the linguistic and cognitive dimensions of Language (including pragmatic semantics, grammar, written and spoken differences).

+ To Acquaint YOU with the principles and the current issues related to teaching and learning a foreign/second language

+ To Enable YOU to apply the principles of performance based language teaching and learning to Arabic

+ To Enable YOU to evaluate, adapt, and be able to integrate authentic and instructional materials

+ To Introduce the principles of testing and evaluation as applied in language teaching, and the national Proficiency Guidelines for Arabic

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COURSE # 25

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* Course Title

Classical Arabic for Imams

+ Quranic Customized Course for Imams to improve the Art of Rhetoric; Balagha, Language Mastering Skills, and Speech Skills.

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PLEASE NOTE:
I’ve been Teaching and Developing the Previous 25 Course For More Than 6 Years

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My Own Philosophy

How Do I Conduct My Courses?

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I Don’t Depend on Books from Outside, just I need to sit with YOU at the first class and discuss in some issues, I ask YOU some questions, and Depending on YOUR answer and our discussion, I Determine how the course will go on with YOU, then I start in preparing the course material customized to YOUR Level.

This is my way when I conduct courses one to one or in groups. In addition, my groups do not exceed six students, to be able to take care of all of them. By the end of my course, I always make sure that I am satisfied of YOUR level and performance and this will be clear from the many tests I do for YOU in regular basis during the course.

YOU will have YOUR own customized course Material that will go on with my course structures and goals.

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* Course Material *

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As I mentioned before, I have to sit with YOU at the first class, and discuss in some points, depending on the discussion between YOU and I, I start in preparing the required course material and it includes the following:

- Arabic Text Book manual

- Text & Exercises book

- Audio CD (to listen every day in YOUR car / IPod)

- Lyrics and Arabic Dialogues CD (to train YOUR pronunciation)

Do not worry about YOUR level in Arabic; YOU Will have YOUR own Customized Course material (Text Book and Audio CD, that will guide YOU step by step in Logical way from YOUR current level to the next level)


PLEASE NOTE:
This is a Serious Professional Course. YOU will really interact in Arabic. To ensure maximum Results, YOU must be Regular, come on Time, and do the Homework I ask YOU to Do, and willing to participate actively during classes.

** YOU Must Follow My Course Rules, My SYSTEM, and My Recommendations to Achieve The Desired Results For each Course.

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* Course Fee *
 
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The Course Fee will Depend upon the Course Type and The Course Number,

I Always Conduct My Lectures in 2 Types:

(1) One – To – One

(2) In a Group

* NOTE: Course Numbers: From Course # 1 To Course # 25

Generally, the Course Fee Neither Cheap Nor Expensive, YOU will find that my Course Fee is a Market Related Price.

To Know YOUR Course Fee:

(1) Choose YOUR Course Number

(2) Choose YOUR Course Type (1 –to–1 OR in A Group)

(3) And email to know YOUR Course Fee & Schedule.

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* Course Venue *
 Where Do I Conduct My Courses?

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I Conduct My Courses in a Very Good Educational Environment at: Lecture Hall at Jalan Jelatek – 54200 Kuala Lumpur.

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* Translation Services *

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BY Choosing ME in YOUR Translation Requirements, this means that YOU Choose An Arabic <> English Translation Guru
I Already Translated Dozens of Books in Many Fields From English to Arabic and From Arabic to English.

I can Respond Professionally and effectively to YOUR Arabic language translation requirements.

I can Provide an extremely high quality English to Arabic and Arabic to English translations, where my service covers all YOUR Arabic and English linguistic needs.

My both English to Arabic translation and Arabic to English translation are backed and proofread by a second professional Arabic/English linguist to ensure accuracy of the text that I translate and its compliance with YOUR instructions.

My aim is to ensure that you will only ever have one source for all YOUR Arabic translation requirements, whether it is a simple business card, a web site, a legal or technical document or even a book, and in whichever discipline it is.

I Offer The Following Services in Translation From English to Arabic And From Arabic to English:

(1) Arabic <> English Translation,

(2) Arabic <> English Interpretation,

(3) Arabic <> English Proofreading,

(4) Arabic <> English Editing,

(5) Arabic <> English Typesetting,

(6) Arabic Ethnic Media Release

(7) Arabic-English Cultural Consultancy

(8) Arabic EnglishDocument Translation

(9) Arabic Translation Management

(10) Arabic Language Email Translation

(11) Arabic Web Site Translation

(12) Arabic Search Engine Promotion

(13) Graphics & Multimedia

(14) Multilingual Engineering

(15) Arabic Software Internationalization

(16) Arabic Testing and Quality Assurance

(17) Arabic Multicultural Marketing

(18) Arabic International Web Promotion

(19) Arabic International Branding

(20) Arabic Interpreting

(21) Arabic Editing & Proofreading

(22) Arabic Desktop Publishing

(23) Arabic Language Subtitling

(24) Arabic Language Copywriting

(25) Domain Name Management


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Translation Fields That YOU May Hire Me To Do:

Arabic Business Translation, Arabic Translation Technical, Arabic Translation Legal, Arabic Translation Medical, Arabic Translation Software & Multimedia, Arabic Translation Typescripts, Arabic Translation Marketing & Sale Materials, Arabic Translation Brochures, Arabic Translation Business Cards & Labels, Arabic Translation Tutorial & Training Tools, Arabic Translation Contracts, Patents, Arabic Translation Licensing Agreements, Arabic Translation Product Manuals, Arabic Translation Shipping & Banking Documents, Arabic Translation Personal Documents, Certificates.

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Interpretation:

Arabic Translation Interpretation Conferences & Seminars, Arabic Translation Interpretation Patient Coordinator, Arabic Translation Interpretation Training Sessions an Workshops, Arabic Translation Interpretation Business Negotiations, Arabic Translation Interpretation Marketing Presentations, Arabic Translation Interpretation Sale & Support, Arabic Translation Interpretation Teleconferencing, Arabic Translation Interpretation Personal Communication between parties.

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MY PRICES

In Arabic Translation Interpretation I Offer the highest quality translation yet, MY prices are very competitive. A minimum charge is levied on translation of short documents.

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Discounts

I offer discounts for high volume or Arabic Translation Interpretation or regular work. Please contact Me if you would like to discuss more about English Arabic translation projects.

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Additional charges

Additional charges may apply for same day/urgent Arabic Translation Interpretation translations, and other services such as Arabic calligraphy artwork, ad copy writing, Arabic website design, and Arabic Translation Interpretation typesetting services.

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Free No-Obligation Quote

For a free Arabic Translation Interpretation quote, please contact Me providing YOUR Arabic Translation Interpretation project details including all or a sample of text to be translated

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- Professional English <> Arabic Translation Work.

- All Translations Performed meticulously and assiduously.

- Translations are always done carefully.

- You will get the chance to review work

- Satisfaction Guaranteed.

- Arabic > English.

- English > Arabic.

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For More Information,

About my Professional Translation Service,

Please Visit My website for Translation

Malaysia Project


www.arabicversion.com.my
 

OR,

Drop me an email

 

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Details You may need to Know

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(A) Modern Standard Arabic (M.S.A)

(B) Colloquial Arabic (AAMEYA)

(C) Arabic Calligraphy “Al-Khatt Al-Aarabi”

(D) Quranic Recitation and Memorization (Tajweed, Hifiz)

(E) Skills Courses

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(A)

Modern Standard Arabic (M.S.A)


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( M.S.A ) Program In Points:

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- Total Stages = 3 Stages

- Stage # 1 (Beginner) = 5 Levels

- Stage # 2 (Intermediate) = 5 Levels

- Stage # 3 (Advanced) = 5 Levels

- Total MSA Levels = 15

- Each level = 50 Hours

- Total Hours for MSA = 750 Hrs.

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( M.S.A ) Program In Details:

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STAGE # 1
(Beginner M.S.A)

- Total Levels = 5

- Total hours per Level = 50 Hrs

*Objective

This stage aims at training YOU to use Arabic in YOUR daily life situations

Examples of what YOU will Learn:

- To Introduce yourself and get acquainted with people.

- To Know How to Order food in a restaurant.

- To tell a taxi driver where YOU want to go.

- To what to say when YOU buy fruits and vegetables.

- To Exchange money, tell the time in Arabic.

- To speak about yourself and YOUR daily life.

- To know what to say when making a phone call.

- To know how to Show sympathy with patients, and much more…

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STAGE # 2
(Intermediate M.S.A) = 5 LEVELS

- Total Levels = 5 Levels

- Total Hours Per Level = 50 Hrs

*Objective

This stage aims to enable YOU to:

- Use the modern language so that YOU can understand the general idea of a journalistic article or a novel

- YOU will use Arabic to describe historical, geographical, and political fields.

- Know the proverbs used in the Arab world and compare them with proverbs in YOUR own language.

- Know about various arts in the Arab world such as calligraphy and arabesque.

- Know Arabic poetry and be familiar with famous poets and famous writers.

- Take part in job interviews.

- Describe YOUR experiences

- Discuss topics of their daily lives (this is a continuation of topics covered in earlier levels but now the student will be expected to provide more detail).

- Become more aware of Arab customs for example in marriage, death, and celebrations.

- Manage a conversation with Arabs in general topics, and more…

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NOTE:
After this stage YOU continue to study Advanced Modern Arabic or customized courses that fit YOUR goals e.g. to study the language used in Mass Media ; to study Arabic for the purpose of trading or any other purpose.

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STAGE # 3 (Advanced M.S.A) = 5 LEVELS

- Total Levels = 5 Levels

- Total Hours Per Level = 50 Hrs

* Objective

The student performs readings from selected Arabic and Islamic books, dating back to the golden age of Arab civilization. During these levels, the student studies Arabic Rhetoric, the History of Arabic Literature, and selections from traditional texts relating to the Glorious Qur'an, Prophetic traditions, and other Islamic sciences, and much more…

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(B)

Colloquial Arabic (AAMEYA)


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Available Arabic Dialects Courses:

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1- EGYPTIAN COLLOQUIAL ARABIC (E.C.A)

Total Levels: 6

Each level: 40 hours

Total Course Hours = 240 Hrs.

Levels Details: See Below…

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2- SYRIAN
COLLOQUIAL ARABIC (S.C.A)

Total Levels: 6

Each level: 40 hours

Total Course Hours = 240 Hrs.

Levels Details: See Below…

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3- GULF
COLLOQUIAL ARABIC (G.C.A)

Total Levels: 6

Each level: 40 hours

Total Course Hours = 240 Hrs.

Levels Details: See Below…

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4- JORDAN
COLLOQUIAL ARABIC (J.C.A)

Total Levels: 6

Each level: 40 hours

Total Course Hours = 240 Hrs.

Levels Details: See Below…

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NOTE:
Apply All of the Following Details on any Dialect YOU Choose from the above 4 Dialects.

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Arabic Language Dialects Courses Levels Details

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LEVEL # 1:

*Objective

The aim of this Level is to enable YOU to:

- Use colloquial Arabic of the selected country when introducing yourself and getting acquainted with others.

- Learn the Arabic Language alphabets as a step toward reading short sentences (to be able to read the names of the streets and the jobs, and more…)

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LEVEL # 2:


*Objective

The aim of this Level is to enable YOU to use the colloquial Arabic of the selected country in daily life for example:

- In a taxi.
- In a pharmacy.
- In a clinic.
- In a trip.
- To tell the time.
- To buy a newspaper or a magazine.
- To go shopping and more…

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LEVEL # 3
*Objective

At the end of this Level YOU will be more confident when using Arabic in a variety of situations for example:

- Buying cinema or theater tickets.
- Booking a room in a hotel.
- Using means of transportation.
- Making bank transactions.
- Buying office supplies from a library,
- Making job interviews.
- Reporting a problem to the police and more…

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LEVEL # 4
* Objective

At the end of this Level YOU should be able to:

- Describe the appearance and the behavior of different people;
- Describe places and clothes.
- Give YOUR opinion about things (which YOU like or dislike - giving reasons and more)

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LEVEL # 5


* Objective

In this level, YOU will learn How to:

- Describe a personal experience.

- Give YOUR opinion about a certain event.

- Be familiar with the expressions used in a various situations.

- Be familiar with the compound sentences.

- Be familiar with the meanings of the body gestures in the selected Country culture.

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LEVEL # 6
* Objective

In this level, YOU will be able to:

- Discuss the cultural foundations of the Arabic language mentioning Arabic proverbs and most common expressions.

- Introduce most famous artists, politicians, elites, scientists, and sportsmen in the selected colloquial Arabic (historically and nowadays).

- Describe the most vital places in the selected colloquial Arabic country and more…

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(C)

Arabic Calligraphy “Al-Khatt Al-Aarabi”

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+ Total Levels: 2 Levels

+ Each Level = 8 lectures

+ Each Lecture is = 2 hours

+ In level one: YOU will learn how to write letters in a various positions in the word (in the beginning, in the middle and in the end of a word)
+ In level two: YOU can write sentences.

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(D)

Quranic Recitation and Memorization

(Tajweed and Hifiz)

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Total Levels: 3 Levels.

One Hour Daily, 25 Hours / Month.

- Level A- Reading Quran.

- Level B- Reciting Rules.

- Level C- Memorization.

*Objective

This program aims to teach YOU the correct way of reciting the Holy Quran, according to the Narration of Hafs from 'Aasim.

*PrerequisitesTo Join this class YOU should Pass the General Arabic Courses (MSA) Test First Level.

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NOTE:

I Teach the whole 10 Ways of Narration of the Holy Quran (For more Information Contact Me)

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(E)
Skills Courses

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SKILL # 1

+ Listening

+ Level Beginners

Objective
Understanding vocabulary, idiomatic expression and structural usage in real life dialogues.

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Level Intermediate

Objective

Comprehension of students instructions and expressions related to social convention and everyday needs. Understanding conventions of telephone conversation and media advertising.

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Level Upper Intermediate

Objective

Comprehension of the main ideas expressed in continuous speech or conversation. Getting the gist of TV/Radio News reports and recorded short stories.

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Level Advanced

Objective

Note-talking, comprehension of structures specific to variety, register and extra-linguistic context.

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SKILL # 2

Speaking


Level Beginners
Objective
Gaining controlled fluency in a restricted range of structures, expressions and vocabulary.

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Level Intermediate

Objective

Handling Question & Answer formats. Speaking on a variety of prepared topics with reasonable fluency and accuracy.

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Level Upper Intermediate

Objective


Using the appropriate variety and register in different contexts. Speaking fluently on a number of topics. Taking part in general conversation.

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Level Advanced

Objective

Talking with accuracy and confidence on a range of topics using the appropriate structural and stylistic forms. Specific tasks include: initiating conversation, describing people, places and events, using connected speech with clarity and cohesion.

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SKILL # 3

Reading

Level Arabic Beginners

Objective

Recognition of vocabulary items in isolation and in short sentences. Reading and comprehension of simple instructions, menus, signs, maps and directions.

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Level Intermediate

Objective

Reading and comprehension of basic facts and ideas in short simple texts or description of people, places and events.

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Level Upper Intermediate

Objective

Understanding of longer texts. Extraction of information from a variety of written sources: short stories, novels, essays, articles, etc. Using Arabic-Arabic and Arabic-English dictionaries. Gaining familiarity with synonyms and figures of speech

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Level Advanced

Objective

Accurate comprehension of non-specialist texts of individual interests. Comprehension of more complex texts with appreciation of structure. Usage, terminology, idiom and cultural references. Reading for pleasure.

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SKILL # 4

Writing Arabic Language

Level Beginners

Objective

Copying words and short sentences in NASKH. Writing précis and guided composition on prepared topics.

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Level Intermediate

Objective

Writing in RI’KA. Writing short, simple letters. Handling everyday situations (taking messages, etc.). Writing short texts based on personal experiences.

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Level Upper Intermediate

Objective

Taking accurate notes on variety of familiar topics. Using idiomatic expressions and terminology with precision. Producing résumés and summaries. Rewriting sentences using different structures.

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Level Advanced

Objective

Using the structures and expressions appropriate to a particular language variety. Summary/research paper writing. Creative writing (descriptive, factual, scientific, narrative). Conducting sustained correspondence.

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Thanks For visiting my blog

I Wish You Good Luck in Learning Arabic.


 
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Best Regards,
 Haytham Ibrahim 
- Author & Inventor of Learn Real Arabic Linguistic System 
- Arabic Language Consultant & Terminologist 
- www.learnrealarabic.com/free

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Arabic language Learning resources:
Www.ArabicVersion.Com
Www.AskArabic.com
Www.ArabicInUse.com
Www.GoodArabic.com
Www.MasterArabic.com
Www.VerySimpleArabic.com
Www.ArabicAccent.com
Www.ConversationalArabic.com
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Blog:
www.enashre.Blogspot.com

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Facts about the Arabic Language
Arabic Semitic language is fairly closely related to, for instance, Hebrew language and the Aramaic language spoken throughout Arab world and widely known outside it.

It has been a literary language for over 1500 years, and is the liturgical language Islam.

The term Modern Standard Arabic is sometimes used in the West to refer to the language of the media as opposed to the language of "Classical" Arabic literature; Arabs make no such distinction, and regard the two as identical.

The expressions Arabic and Classical Arabic usually refer to the pure Arabic language which is, according to Arabic speakers, both the language of present-day media across North Africa and the Middle East (from Morocco to Iraq) and the language of the Qur'an.

The Arabic alphabet derives from the Aramaic script (which variety, Nabataean or Syriac, is a matter of scholarly dispute), to which it bears a loose resemblance like that of Coptic or Cyrillic script to Greek script.

Spoken in: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Gaza Strip, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, West Bank, Yemen by a majority, many other countries as a minority language.

Region: Arab world.

Total speakers: 225 million (Ethnologue, native speakers of all dialects)

Statistics:
- Egypt- 65,410,000
- Algeria - 32,129,324
- Morocco - 18,858,000
- Iraq - 18,290,150
- Sudan - 15,000,000
- Yemen - 14,681,000
- Saudi Arabia - 26,417,599
- Syria - 11,470,000
- Tunisia - 9,000,500
- Jordan - 5,650,000
- Libya - 4,200,000
- Lebanon - 3,900,000
- Palestine - 3,000,000
- Mauritania - 1,800,000
- Iran - 1,400,000
- France - 1,365,700
- Oman - 1,241,000
- Argentina - 1,000,000
- Israel - 1,000,000
- Libya - 1,000,000
- Turkey - 1,000,000
- United Arab Emirates - 925,000
- Kuwait - 805,000
- Chad - 754,590
- Bahrain - 677,886
- Niger - 277,400
- Netherlands - 220,000
- Eritrea - 218,000
- Tanzania - 195,000
- United Stats - 193,520
- Belgium - 124,700
- Mali - 106,100
- Qatar - 103,000
- Nigeria - 100,000
- Germany - 96,200
- Cameroon - 63,600
- Central Africa - 63,000
- Kenya - 35,000
- Canada - 28,550
- Afghanistan - 10,000
- Italy - 5,000
- Senegal - 5,000
- United Kingdom - 4,000
- Dominican Republic - 3,000
- Trinidad and Tobago - 2,600
- Jamaica - 2,000
- Tajikistan - 2,000
- Cyprus - 1,300
- French Guiana - 800
- India - 500

- Total - 242,806,429

Classification: Afro-Asiatic | Semitic






Arabic Dialects
The word "Arabic" also refers to the many national or regional dialects/languages derived from Classical Arabic, spoken daily across North Africa and the Middle East, which sometimes differ enough to be mutually incomprehensible. These dialects are not frequently written, although a certain amount of literature (particularly plays and poetry) exists in many of them, notably Lebanon and Egypt.

"Colloquial Arabic" is a collective term for the spoken languages or dialects of people throughout the Arab world, which, as mentioned, differ radically from the literary language. The main dialectal division is between the Maghreb dialects and those of the Middle East, followed by that between sedentary dialects and the much more conservative Bedouin dialects. Maltese, though descended from Arabic, is considered a separate language. Speakers of some of these dialects are unable to converse with speakers of another dialect of Arabic; in particular, while Middle Easterners can generally understand one another, they often have trouble understanding Maghrebis (although the converse is not true, due to the popularity of Middle Eastern, especially Egyptian, films and other media).

One factor in the differentiation of the dialects is influence from the languages previously spoken in the areas, which have typically provided a significant number of new words, and have sometimes also influenced pronunciation or word order; however, a much more significant factor for most dialects is, as among Romance languages, retention (or change of meaning) of different classical forms. Thus Iraqi aku, Levantine fiih, and North African kayen all mean "there is", and all come from Arabic (yakuun, fiihi, kaa'in respectively), but now sound very different.

The major groups are:

Egyptian Arabic (Egypt) Considered the most widely understood and used "second dialect"
Maghreb Arabic (Tunisian, Algerian, Moroccan, and western Libyan)
Hassaniiya (in Mauritania)
Andalusi Arabic (extinct, but important role in literary history)
Maltese
Sudanese Arabic (with a dialect continuum into Chad)
Levantine Arabic (Syrian, Lebanese, Palestinian, and western Jordanian)
Iraqi Arabic
Gulf Arabic (Gulf coast from Kuwait to Oman, and minorities on the other side)
Hijazi Arabic
Najdi Arabic
Yemeni Arabic





Arabic Grammar
Due to the rapid expansion of Islam in the 8th century many people learned Arabic as a lingua franca. For this reason, the earliest grammatical treatises on Arabic are often written by non-native speakers.

Traditionally, the grammatical sciences are divided into four branches:
al-lugah (lexicon) concerned with collecting and explaining vocabulary.
at-ta-rif (morphology) determining the form of the individual words.
an-na-w (syntax) primarily concerned with inflection (i-rab) which had already been lost in dialects.
al-istiqaq (derivation) examining the origin of the words.
Noun:
The Arabic noun can take one of three states of definiteness: definite, indefinite or construct state. The definite state is marked by the article al-. The indefinite state is marked by an ending -n (nunation). The construct state is unmarked and occurs in the first member of a genitive construction.
Arabic Personal Pronouns:
Singular:
I - anaa, for example: anaa katabtu - I wrote.
thou (masculine) - anta, for example: anta katabta - thou wrotest.
thou (feminine) - anti, for example: anti katabti - thou wrotest.
he (masculine) - huwa, for example: huwa kataba - he wrote.
she (feminine) - hiya, for example: hiya katabat - she wrote.

Plural:
we - naHnu, for example: naHnu katabnaa - we wrote.
you (pl. masculine) - antum, for example: antum katabtum - you wrote.
you (pl. feminine) - antunna, for example: antunna katabtunna - you wrote.
you two (dual masc and fem) - antumaa katabtumaa - you two wrote.
they (masc) - hum, for example: hum katabuu - they wrote.
they (fem) - hunna, for example: hunna katabna - they wrote.
they two (dual masc) - humaa - humaa katabaa - they two wrote.
they two (dual fem) - humaa - humaa katabataa - they two wrote.
Two Types of Arabic Sentences:
1. Verbal sentence: the sentence starts with the verb and subject follows. The verb is always in the singular form even for the cases where the subject is dual or plural. Examples for the verbal sentence:
dhahaba abiy ila Cairo - literal translation - has gone my father to Cairo. But, it really means - my father has gone to Cairo.
raja'a abiy min Cairo - literal translation - returned my father from Cairo. But, it really means - my father returned from Cairo.
la'iba al-waladaani - the two boys played (dual).
la'iba al-awlaadu - the boys played.
As you see, the verb is always in the singular form even though the subject is in dual or plural.

2. Nominal sentence: the sentence starts with the noun or subject and the others follow. The verb must agree with the subject in number and gender. Examples for the nominal sentence:
abiy raja'a min Cairo - My father returned from Cairo.
akhiy kataba - my brother wrote.
al-waladu la'iba - the boy played.
al-waladaani la'ibaa - the two boys played (dual).
al-awlaadu la'iboo - boys played (boys is plural = "they" so the equivalent verb for "they" is "la'iboo").
As you see, the verb agrees with the subject in number.
anaa wa akhiy wa abiy dhahabnaa ila Cairo - I and my brother and my father went to Cairo. In this sentence, I, and my brother and my father are equivalent to "us." Therefore, the verb must agree with the "us," e.g., dhahabnaa.
Gender:
Arabic has two genders, expressed by pronominal as well as by verbal agreement. Agreement with numerals shows a peculiar 'polarity'. The genders are usually referred to as masculine and feminine, but the situation is more complicated than that. The 'feminine' gender is also used to express 'singulatives'.

The marker for the feminine gender is a -t- suffix, but some nouns without this marker also take feminine agreement (e. g. umm 'mother', ard 'earth'). Already in Classical Arabic, the -t marker was not pronounced in pausa. It is written with a special letter (ta marbuta) indicating that a t sound is to be pronounced in sandhi but not in pausa.
Tenses:
There are two main tenses in the Arabic language. 1.Perfect Tense, 2.Imperfect Tense or the Present Tense. The action is completed in the perfect tense. You may also call this as the past tense because the action is completed before the present so it belongs to the past. For example, one may say, "I ate". The action of eating was finished in the past. The past could be a few minutes or a few decades before the present time. Alternately, in the second tense, i.e., the imperfect, the action is still continuing. For example, you knock on the door and walk in. You see he is eating his meal. He says to you, "I am eating". The action is still continuing, he is still eating while talking to you. This is the present tense in English. It is also the "imperfect tense" in Arabic. You look at the table above and locate the pronoun "I" on the left column and follow it to the right to the "imperfect" column. You will see the verb, "akulu". It means, "I am eating" or "I eat". What about the future tense? Well, there is not such a thing as the future tense in Arabic. This is done by adding the prefix "sa" to the imperfect form of the verb. For example, let's look at the table above to find out the imperfect form of the verb "akala". It is "ya'kulu". Add the prefix "sa" to the "ya'kulu" you get, "saya'kulu" which means "He will eat".








History of Arabic Language
Modern Standard Arabic belongs to the Semitic language family. Semitic languages have a recorded history going back thousands of years, one of the most extensive continuous archives of documents belonging to any human language group. While the origins of the Semitic language family are currently in dispute among scholars, there is agreement that they flourished in the Mediterranean Basin area, especially in the Tigris-Euphrates river basin and in the coastal areas of the Levant.

The Semitic language family is a descendant of proto-Semitic, an ancient language that was exclusively spoken and has no written record. This relationship places Arabic firmly in the Afro-Asiatic group of world languages. Specifically, Arabic is part of the Semitic subgroup of Afro-Asiatic languages. Going further into the relationship between Arabic and the other Semitic languages, Modern Arabic is considered to be part of the Arab-Canaanite sub-branch the central group of the Western Semitic languages. Thus, to review, while Arabic is not the oldest of the Semitic languages, its roots are clearly founded in a Semitic predecessor.

Aside from Arabic, the Semitic language family includes Hebrew, Aramaic, Maltese, Amharic, Tigrinya, Tigre, Gurage, Geez, Syrica, Akkadian, Phonoecian, Punic, Ugaritic, Nabatean, Amorite and Moabite. While a majority of these are now considered "dead" languages, either entirely obsolete or used only in religious practice, Arabic has flourished. The reason for this is inextricably linked with the rise of Islam and, more specifically, Islam’s holy book, the Qur’an.

There are three distinct forms of Arabic. Classical or Qur’anical Arabic, Formal or Modern Standard Arabic and Spoken or Colloquial Arabic. Classical Arabic is the form of Arabic literally found in the Qur’an. It is used neither in conversation, nor in non-religious writing. As such, Classical Arabic is primarily learned for reading and reciting Islamic religious texts.

In order to understand the relationship between Modern Standard Arabic and Spoken Arabic it is important to understand the concept of "diglossia". As defined by the term’s founder, Charles Ferguson, diglossia (literally meaning "two tongues") conveys a situation where, in addition to the primary dialects of a language, there is a highly codified form which is the vehicle of a large and respected body of literature. In addition to Arabic, an example of diglossia can be found in the co-existence of written Latin with the spoken Romance languages of French, Italian, and Spanish. While Modern Standard Arabic is the definitive form of written Arabic there are many spoken Arabic dialects. Modern Standard Arabic provides a universal form of the language that can be understood by all and is commonly used in radio and TV news broadcasts, films, plays, poetry, and conversation between Arabic-speaking people of different dialects.

Arab colloquial dialects are generally only spoken languages. Arabs use the colloquial language in all their daily interactions, but when they encounter a language situation calling for greater formality, Modern Standard Arabic is the medium of choice. In every area of the world where Arabic is spoken, this language situation prevails: there is a colloquial language, meaning the language which is spoken regularly and which Arabic speakers learn as their L1, and then there is Modern Standard Arabic, based on Classical or Quranic Arabic. Standard Arabic is more or less the same throughout the Arab World, while there are wide differences between the various colloquial dialects. In fact, some of the differences are so large that many dialects are mutually unintelligible. My Palestinian roommate, for example, has told me several times that he can’t understand the Moroccan dialect of colloquial Arabic.

Modern Arabic, both Standard and colloquial, is not static. The colloquialisms have undergone and will likely continue to undergo great change. Unfortunately, until recently they have not been closely studied, and therefore it is difficult to document any changes they may have undergone. It is easier, however, to document changes in Modern Standard Arabic.

One on-going trend in Modern Standard Arabic is modernization. Modernization involves the creation of new terms for concepts which didn’t exist in earlier times. Like many other speakers around the world, Arabic speakers are sensitive to the wholesale borrowing of words. In fact, they are perhaps more sensitive to language change because most Arabs recognize Arabic as the language of God. Such a concept does not accommodate language change well. As a result, normative language academies have been established in several areas throughout the Arab world including Cairo, Damascus, Baghdad, and Amman.

While the first documented record of written Arabic dates from the early 4th century AD, its use in the early 7th century as the language of the Qur’an led Arabic to become the major world language that it is today. As Islam spread throughout the world, its chosen language did as well. Coupled with the rise of Islam, Arabic became the language of government as well as religion. Within 100 years after the introduction of the Qur’an, Arabic became the official language of a world empire whose boundaries stretched from the Oxus River in Central Asia to the Atlantic Ocean, and even northward into the Iberian Peninsula of Europe. As Islam continued to spread through the world, Arabic inherently followed.








Arabic Literature
The structure of the Arabic language is well-suited to harmonious word-patterns, with elaborate rhymes and rhythms. The earliest known literature emerged in northern Arabia around 500 AD and took the form of poetry which was recited aloud, memorised and handed down from one generation to another. It began to be written down towards the end of the seventh century. The most celebrated poems of the pre-Islamic period were known as the mu'allaqat ("the suspended"), reputedly because they were considered sufficiently outstanding to be hung on the walls of the ka'ba in Makkah.
Prose:
The birth of Arabic prose as a literary form is attributed to the Persian secretarial class who served under the Abbasid caliphs (750-1256) in Baghdad. Ibn al-Muqaffa' (died 757) was a convert to Islam who translated classical Persian works into Arabic. He became famous as the author of Kalila and Dimna, a series of didactic fables in which two jackals offer moral and practical advice.

The origins of the modern Arabic novel can be traced to a long process of cultural revival and assimilation, referred to in Arabic as the Nahada or Renaissance. Characteristic of this period were two distinct trends. The Neo-Classical movement sought to rediscover the literary traditions of the past, and was influenced by traditional literary genres such as the maqama and the Thousands and One Nights. In contrast, the Modernist movement began by translating Western works, primarily novels, into Arabic.

Individual authors in Syria, Lebanon, and Egypt created original works by imitating the classical maqama. The most prominent of these was al-Mawilhi, whose book, The Hadith of Issa ibn Hisham, critiqued Egyptian society in the period of Muhammad Ali. This work constitutes the first stage in the development of the modern Arabic novel. This trend was furthered by Georgy Zeidan, a Lebanese Christian writer who immigrated with his family to Egypt following the Damascus riots of 1860. In the early twentieth century, Zidan serialized his historical novels in the Egyptian newspaper al-Halal. These novels were extremely popular, especially in comparison with the works of al-Mawilhi, because of their clarity of language, simple structure, and the author's vivid imagination. Two other important writers from this period were Khalil Gibran and Mihail Naima, both of whom incorporated philosophical musings into their works.

Nevertheless, literary critics do not consider the works of these four authors to be true novels, but rather indications of the form that the modern novel would assume. Many of these critics point to Zind, a novel by Muhammad Hasnin Heikhal as the first true Arabic-language novel, while others point to Adraa Denshawi by Muhammad Taher Haki as the first true novel.
Poetry:
The metres normally used were first codified in the 8th century by al-Khalil bin Ahmad and have changed little since. Metre (wazn) is based on the length of syllables rather than stress. A short syllable is a consonant followed by a short vowel. A long syllable is a vowelled letter followed by either an unvowelled consonant or a long vowel. A nunation sign at the end of a word also makes the final syllable long. In Arabic poetry each line (bayt; abyat) is divided into two halves (shatr; shatrayn).

Rhyme (qafiya) is basically determined by the last consonant of a word. In rhyme-words nunation is dropped, as (sometimes) is the final vowel. Where the final vowel is fatha (short "a"), it must be used consistently each time the rhyme occurs - though kasra (short "i") and damma (short "u") and interchangeable. If a long vowel precedes the last syllable of a rhyme-word, it also becomes part of the rhyme. Similarly, ya (long "i") and waw (long "u") are interchangeable but alif (used as a long "a") is not. Because short vowels are generally considered long when they occur at the end of a line, the vowels which appear short in their written form also rhyme with their corresponding long vowels - it's the pronunciation, not the writing, which counts.

The most outstanding Arabic writer of the 20th century is Naguib Mahfouz, a prolific Egyptian novelist, playwright, and screenwriter who won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1988. Other prominent writers from Egypt - which has long been the intellectual centre of the Arab world - include Taha Hussein, Tawfiq al-Hakim and M. Hussein Heikal.

A number of modern writers have also emerged in the Maghreb (north Africa), though many of them write in French rather than Arabic.






Phrases in Arabic
In the street
Please: min fadlak (m) iki (f)
Thank You: shukran
You are welcome: afwan, ahlan wa sahlan
Excuse me / sorry: assif
Do you speak English?: tatakalam Inglesi?
I don't understand: anna mush fahim
What is this?: shu hatha?
Introducing yourself
How are you?: kheif halak (m) iki (f)
Very Well: tamam, bikhair
My name is...: ismee
What is your name?: ma ismiki (f)
Shopping
How much is this?: bikam hatha? What do you want? - (m): Matha tureed?, (f): Matha tureedeen?
What is the discount?: kam il khasem?
I want to buy....: Anna ureed ishtaraiti
It is too expensive: ghalia katheer
It is too cheap: hatha rakhees jedan
Travels & directions
Where is...: wain
the bank: IL masrif
the restaurant: IL mataam
the telephone: IL hatif
the airport: IL matar
the post office: maktab IL bareed
the toilets: IL hamam
the hospital: IL mustashfa
the police station: dar al shurta
traffic police: IL murur
Go...: rouh
to the left: ala al yassar
to the right: ALA al yameen
Go straight on: alatool
The road: al shar'e






Arabic Products
Here we offer you a list of products related to Arabic Language provided by third party companies. We are not direct providers of these products, we act as their resellers only. After clicking on a link you'll be redirected to other site where you can complete your sale. We work with reputable companies offering the best language products of the market.
Hand held dictionaries
Ectaco offers some of the best Arabic electronic translators, linguistic microcomputers and translations software for pocket PC and Palm. It's a perfect option to cover the communication needs for people traveling abroad . Some products translate many different language pairs. Other have a speech recognition system that allow you to speak a phrase in your language and translate it to the target language





Arabic Sign Language
Sign language in the Arab World has been recently recognized and documented. Many efforts have been made to establish the sign language used in individual countries, including Jordan, Egypt, Libya, and the Gulf States, by trying to standardize the language and spread it among members of the Deaf community and those concerned. Such efforts produced many sign languages, almost as many as Arabic-speaking countries, yet with the same sign alphabets.






Arabic Slang
Arabic Slang developed from classical Arabic. It differs from Classical Arabic in that it does not use the rules of declination and it has sounds that do not exist in standard language.
Nouns and Adjectives
geher: beautiful
Kosha: old
Semoaa: young
obreeza: police
anasi (feminine): woman, lady
keefic (greeting):hello (egyptian)
yel-la: hurry!
Iraqui Slang
Shlonkom?: how are you all?
zen/zena [M/F]:fine
Shako mako?: what’s new?
Kulshi mako: nothing new..
Phrases
Shonak?/Shonik? [M/F]: how are you?
Kafe al haal ?: how are you ?
Alhamdo lillah: thanks God
Safiya Dafiya: everything is fine (literally means: sunny and warm)





Teaching Arabic
Associations of Arabic teachers

AATA - American Association of Teachers of Arabic
American Association of Teachers of Arabic (AATA) aims to facilitate communication and cooperation between teachers of Arabic and to promote study, criticism, research and instruction in the field of Arabic language pedagogy, Arabic linguistics and Arabic literature.

The Victorian Arabic Language Teachers Association
This Arabiclinks is part of Lotelinx. Provided by the LOTE Unit of the Learning and Teaching Innovation Division, Victorian Department of Education, Employment and Training.






Words in Arabic
Basic Words
Yes: na,am, aiwa
No: la
Hello: al salaam a' Laykum/marhaba
Hello: (reply) WA alaykum al salaam
Good Bye: ma salaama
Why?: lain?
Who?: meen?
When?: mata?
How?: kaif?
Days of the Week
Saturday: al sabat
Sunday: al ahad
Monday: al ithnain
Tuesday: al thalatha
Wednesday: al arba
Thursday: al khamees
Friday: al juma
Today: al youm
Yesterday: ams
Tomorrow: bukra, ghadan
After tomorrow: baad bukra
In the morning: fe al sabah
In the afternoon: baad al dhuar
Tonight: fel al massa
Eating
Bread: Khubz
Breakfast: Iftar
Dinner: Ashaa
Lunch: Gadaa
Coffee: Qahwa
Fish: Samak
Milk: Haleeb
Onion: Basal
Orange: Burdukali
Salad: Salata
Colors
Black: Aswad
Blue: Azrak
Brown: Jauzi, Buni
Green: Akhdar
Grey: Ramadi
Purple: Urjuwani, Banafsaji (violet)
Red: Ahmar
Family
Brother: Akh
Daughter (of): Bint
Father: Ab
Grandfather: Jadd
Grandmother: Jaddah
Mother: Umm
Sister: Akht
Son (of): Ibn



















Literary and Modern Standard Arabic

Main article: Literary Arabic

The term "Arabic" may refer to either literary Arabic ([al-]Fuṣḥā الفصحى) or the many localized varieties of Arabic commonly called "colloquial Arabic." Arabs consider literary Arabic as the standard language and tend to view everything else as mere dialects. Literary Arabic (اللغة العربية الفصحى translit: al-luġatu l-ʿarabiyyatu l-fuṣḥā "the most eloquent Arabic language"), refers both to the language of present-day media across North Africa and the Middle East and to the language of the Qur'an. (The expression media here includes most television and radio, and practically all written matter, including books, newspapers, magazines, documents of every kind, and reading primers for small children.) "Colloquial" or "dialectal" Arabic refers to the many national or regional varieties derived from Classical Arabic, spoken across North Africa and the Middle East, which constitute the everyday spoken language. These sometimes differ enough to be mutually incomprehensible. These dialects are typically unwritten, although a certain amount of literature (particularly plays and poetry) exists in many of them[citation needed]. They are often used to varying degrees in informal spoken media, such as soap operas and talk shows. Literary Arabic or Classical Arabic is the official language of all Arab countries and is the only form of Arabic taught in schools at all stages[citation needed]. The only dialect to have acquired official language status is Maltese, spoken in (predominately Catholic) Malta and written with the Latin alphabet.

The sociolinguistic situation of Arabic in modern times provides a prime example of the linguistic phenomenon of diglossia, which is the normal use of two separate varieties of the same language, usually in different social situations. In the case of Arabic, educated Arabs of any nationality can be assumed to speak both their local dialect and their school-taught literary Arabic. When speaking with someone from the same country, many speakers switch back and forth between the two varieties of the language (code switching), sometimes even within the same sentence. When educated Arabs of different nationalities engage in conversation (for example, a Moroccan or Saudi speaking with a Lebanese), both switch into Literary Arabic for the sake of communication.

Like other languages, literary Arabic continues to evolve[citation needed]. Classical Arabic (especially from the pre-Islamic to the Abbasid period, including Qur'anic Arabic) can be distinguished from Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) as used today. Classical Arabic is considered normative; modern authors attempt to follow (with varying degrees of success) the syntactic and grammatical norms laid down by Classical grammarians (such as Sibawayh), and use the vocabulary defined in Classical dictionaries (such as the Lisān al-Arab). However, many modern terms would have been mysterious to a Classical author, whether taken from other languages (for example, فيلم film) or coined from existing lexical resources (for example, هاتف hātif "telephone" = "caller"). Structural influence from foreign languages or from the colloquial varieties has also affected Modern Standard Arabic. For example, MSA texts sometimes use the format "A, B, C, and D" when listing things, whereas Classical Arabic prefers "A and B and C and D," and subject-initial sentences may be more common in MSA than in Classical Arabic[citation needed]. For these reasons, Modern Standard Arabic is generally treated separately in non-Arab sources.

[edit] Influence of Arabic on other languages

Main article: Influence of Arabic on other languages

The influence of Arabic has been most important in Islamic countries. Arabic is a major source of vocabulary for languages such as Spanish, Portuguese, Berber, Kurdish, Pashto, Persian, Swahili, Urdu, Hindustani (especially the spoken variety), Turkish, Malay, Rohingya, Bengali, Tagalog, and Indonesian, as well as other languages in countries where these languages are spoken. For example, the Arabic word for book (/kitāb/) has been borrowed in all the languages listed, with the exception of Spanish and Portuguese which use the Latin-derived word "libro". In addition, English has quite a few Arabic loan words, and, some directly but most through the medium of other Mediterranean languages. Other languages such as Maltese[7] and Kinubi derive from Arabic, rather than merely borrowing vocabulary or grammar rules.

The terms borrowed range from religious terminology (like Berber taẓallit "prayer" <>

Arabic words also made their way into several West African languages as Islam spread across the Sahara. Variants of Arabic words such as kitaab (book) have spread to the languages of African groups who had no direct contact with Arab traders.[8]

Arabic was also influenced by other languages including Persian, Berber language and Egyptian. The influences from Berber and Egyptian on Arabic happened mainly before Islam, making these influences not directly noticeable by non-linguists.[citation needed]

See also: list of Arabic loanwords in English.

[edit] Arabic and Islam

Arabic is the language of the Qur'an. Traditionally, Muslims believe translation of the Qur'an detracts from its exact meaning. Some schools of thought maintain that it should not be translated at all.[citation needed] Arabic is often associated with Islam, but it is also spoken by Arab Christians, Arab Druze, Mizrahi Jews and Iraqi Mandaeans.

Most of the world's Muslims do not speak Arabic as their native language but can read the script and recite the words of religious texts.

[edit] History

The earliest texts in Proto-Arabic, or Ancient North Arabian, are the Hasaean inscriptions of eastern Saudi Arabia, from the 8th century BC, written not in the modern Arabic alphabet, nor in its Nabataean ancestor, but in variants of the epigraphic South Arabian musnad. These are followed by 6th-century BC Lihyanite texts from southeastern Saudi Arabia and the Thamudic texts found throughout Arabia and the Sinai, and not actually connected with Thamud. Later come the Safaitic inscriptions beginning in the 1st century BC, and the many Arabic personal names attested in Nabataean inscriptions (which are, however, written in Aramaic). From about the 2nd century BC, a few inscriptions from Qaryat al-Faw (near Sulayyil) reveal a dialect which is no longer considered "Proto-Arabic", but Pre-Classical Arabic. By the fourth century AD, the Arab kingdoms of the Lakhmids in southern Iraq, the Ghassanids in southern Syria the Kindite Kingdom emerged in Central Arabia. Their courts were responsible for some notable examples of pre-Islamic Arabic poetry, and for some of the few surviving pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions in the Arabic alphabet.

[edit] Dialects and descendants

Main article: Varieties of Arabic

"Colloquial Arabic" is a collective term for the spoken varieties of Arabic used throughout the Arab world, which differ radically from the literary language. The main dialectal division is between the North African dialects and those of the Middle East, followed by that between sedentary dialects and the much more conservative Bedouin dialects. Speakers of some of these dialects are unable to converse with speakers of another dialect of Arabic. In particular, while Middle Easterners can generally understand one another, they often have trouble understanding North Africans (although the converse is not true, due to the popularity of Middle Eastern—especially Egyptian—films and other media).

One factor in the differentiation of the dialects is influence from the languages previously spoken in the areas, which have typically provided a significant number of new words, and have sometimes also influenced pronunciation or word order; however, a much more significant factor for most dialects is, as among Romance languages, retention (or change of meaning) of different classical forms. Thus Iraqi aku, Levantine fīh, and North African kayən all mean "there is", and all come from classical Arabic forms (yakūn, fīhi, kā'in respectively), but now sound very different.
Different Dialects of Arabic in the Arab World

The major dialect groups are:

* Egyptian Arabic, is spoken by around 76 million in Egypt. It is the most understood variety of Arabic.
* Gulf Arabic is spoken by around 34 million people in the Gulf States and eastern Saudi Arabia.
* Iraqi Arabic, is spoken by about 29 million people in Iraq. With significant differences between the Arabian-like dialects of the south and the more conservative dialects of the north.
* Levantine Arabic, includes Syrian, Lebanese, Palestinian, Jordanian, and Cypriot Arabic, is spoken by almost 35 million people. It's also called Mediterranean Arabic.
* Maghrebi Arabic, includes Moroccan, Algerian, Tunisian, and Libyan Arabic, is spoken by around 60 million people, though it is not fully understood between Arabs of the east.

Other varieties include:

* Andalusi Arabic (Iberia until 17th century)
* Bahrani Arabic (in Bahrain, and to a lesser extent in Oman)
* Hassaniya Arabic (in Mauritania, Mali and Western Sahara)
* Hejazi Arabic (in Hejaz, western Saudi Arabia)
* Maltese which is spoken on the Mediterranean island of Malta, is the only one to have established itself as a fully separate language, with independent literary norms. In the course of its history the language has adopted numerous loanwords, phonetic and phonological features, and even some grammatical patterns, from Italian, Sicilian, and English. It is also the only Semitic tongue written in the Latin alphabet.
* Najdi Arabic (in Nejd, central Saudi Arabia)
* Siculo Arabic (Sicily, South Italy until 14th century, developed into the Maltese language[9])
* Sudanese Arabic (with a dialect continuum into Chad)
* Yemeni Arabic (in Yemen to southern Saudi Arabia, and Somalia)



Sounds

Main article: Arabic phonology

This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

The phonemes below reflect the pronunciation of Standard Arabic. There are minor variations from country to country. Additionally, these dialects can vary from region to region within a country.

[edit] Vowels

Arabic has three vowels, with long and short forms of /a/, /i/, and /u/. There are also two diphthongs: /aj/ and /aw/.

See Arabic alphabet for explanations on the IPA phonetic symbols found in this chart.

1. [dʒ] is pronounced as [ɡ] by some speakers. This is especially characteristic of the Egyptian and southern Yemeni dialects. In many parts of North Africa and in the Levant, it is pronounced as [ʒ].
2. /l/ is pronounced [lˁ] only in /ʔalːaːh/, the name of God, i.e. Allah, when the word follows a, ā, u or ū (after i or ī it is unvelarized: bismi l-lāh /bismilːaːh/).
3. /ʕ/ is usually a phonetic approximant.
4. In many varieties, /ħ, ʕ/ are actually epiglottal [ʜ, ʢ] (despite what is reported in many earlier works).
5. /x/ is considered to be a uvular sound (/χ/) by some linguists[citation needed].

Arabic has consonants traditionally termed "emphatic" /tˁ, dˁ, sˁ, ðˁ/, which are both velarized [tˠ, dˠ, sˠ, ðˠ] and pharyngealised [tˁ, dˁ, sˁ, ðˁ]. This simultaneous velarization and pharyngealization is deemed "Retracted Tongue Root" by phonologists.[10] In some transcription systems, emphasis is shown by capitalizing the letter, for example, /dˁ/ is written ‹D›; in others the letter is underlined or has a dot below it, for example, ‹ḍ›.

Vowels and consonants can be phonologically short or long. Long (geminate) consonants are normally written doubled in Latin transcription (i.e. bb, dd, etc.), reflecting the presence of the Arabic diacritic mark shaddah, which indicates doubled consonants. In actual pronunciation, doubled consonants are held twice as long as short consonants. This consonant lengthening is phonemically contrastive: qabala "he accepted" vs. qabbala "he kissed."





Syllable structure

Arabic has two kinds of syllables: open syllables (CV) and (CVV) - and closed syllables (CVC). Every syllable begins with a consonant, except in the case where the phrase begins with the definite article, for example, "the director" would be pronounced [al mudiːr]. When a word ends in a vowel and the following word is the definite article, then the initial vowel of the article is elided and the consonant closes the final syllable of the preceding word, for example, baytu –l mudiir "house (of) the director," which becomes [baytul mudiːr].







Stress

Although word stress is not phonemically contrastive in Standard Arabic, it does bear a strong relationship to vowel length. The basic rules are:

* Only one of the last three syllables may be stressed.
* Given this restriction, the last "superheavy" syllable (containing a long vowel or ending in a consonant) is stressed.
* If there is no such syllable, the pre-final syllable is stressed if it is 'heavy.' Otherwise, the first allowable syllable is stressed.
* In Standard Arabic, a final long vowel may not be stressed. (This restriction does not apply to the spoken dialects, where original final long vowels have been shortened and secondary final long vowels have arisen.)

For example: ki-TAA-bun "book", KAA-ti-bun "writer", MAK-ta-bun "desk", ma-KAA-ti-bu "desks", mak-TA-ba-tun "library", KA-ta-buu (MSA) "they wrote" = KA-ta-bu (dialect), ka-ta-BUU-hu (MSA) "they wrote it" = ka-ta-BUU (dialect), ka-TA-ba-taa (MSA) "they (dual, fem) wrote", ka-TAB-tu (MSA) "I wrote" = ka-TABT (dialect). Doubled consonants count as two consonants: ma-JAL-la "magazine", ma-HALL "place".

Some dialects have different stress rules. In the Cairo (Egyptian Arabic) dialect, for example, a heavy syllable may not carry stress more than two syllables from the end of a word, hence mad-RA-sa "school", qaa-HI-ra "Cairo". In the Arabic of Sana, stress is often retracted: BAY-tayn "two houses", MAA-sat-hum "their table", ma-KAA-tiib "desks", ZAA-rat-hiin "sometimes", mad-RA-sat-hum "their school". (In this dialect, only syllables with long vowels or diphthongs are considered heavy; in a two-syllable word, the final syllable can be stressed only if the preceding syllable is light; and in longer words, the final syllable cannot be stressed.)






Dialectal variations

Main article: Varieties of Arabic

In some dialects, there may be more or fewer phonemes than those listed in the chart above. For example, non-Arabic [v] is used in the Maghrebi dialects as well in the written language mostly for foreign names. Semitic [p] became [f] extremely early on in Arabic before it was written down; a few modern Arabic dialects, such as Iraqi (influenced by Persian and Turkish) distinguish between [p] and [b].

Interdental fricatives ([θ] and [ð]) are rendered as stops [t] and [d] in some dialects (such as Egyptian, Levantine, and much of the Maghreb); some of these dialects render them as [s] and [z] in "learned" words from the Standard language. Early in the expansion of Arabic, the separate emphatic phonemes [dˁ] and [ðˁ] coallesced into a single phoneme, becoming one or the other. Predictably, dialects without interdental fricatives use [dˁ] exclusively, while dialects with such fricatives use [ðˁ]. Again, in "learned" words from the Standard language, [ðˁ] is rendered as [zˁ] (in Egypt & the Levant) or [dˁ] (in North Africa) in dialects without interdental fricatives.

Another key distinguishing mark of Arabic dialects is how they render the original velar and uvular stops /q/, /dʒ/ (Proto-Semitic /g/), and /k/:

* ق /q/ retains its original pronunciation in widely scattered regions such as Yemen, Morocco, and urban areas of the Maghreb. It is pronounced as a glottal stop [ʔ] in several prestige dialects, such as those spoken in Cairo, Beirut and Damascus. But it is rendered as a voiced velar stop [g] in Gulf Arabic, Iraqi Arabic, Upper Egypt, much of the Maghreb, and less urban parts of the Levant (e.g. Jordan). Some traditionally Christian villages in rural areas of the Levant render the sound as [k], as do Shia Bahrainis. In some Gulf dialects, it is palatalized to [dʒ] or [ʒ]. It is pronounced as a voiced uvular constrictive [ʁ] in Sudanese Arabic. Many dialects with a modified pronunciation for /q/ maintain the [q] pronunciation in certain words (often with religious or educational overtones) borrowed from the Classical language.
* ج /d͡ʒ/ retains its pronunciation in Iraq and much of the Arabian Peninsula, but is pronounced [g] in most of North Egypt and parts of Yemen, [ʒ] in Morocco and the Levant, and [j] in some words in much of Gulf Arabic.
* ك /k/ usually retains its original pronunciation, but is palatalized to [tʃ] in many words in Palestine, Iraq and much of the Arabian Peninsula. Often a distinction is made between the suffixes /-ak/ (you, masc.) and /-ik/ (you, fem.), which become [-ak] and [-itʃ], respectively. In Sana Arabic, /-ik/ is pronounced [-iʃ].











Grammar

Main article: Arabic grammar

Nouns in Literary Arabic have three grammatical cases (nominative, accusative, and genitive [also used when the noun is governed by a preposition]); three numbers (singular, dual and plural); two genders (masculine and feminine); and three "states" (indefinite, definite, and construct). The cases of singular nouns (other than those that end in long ā) are indicated by suffixed short vowels (/-u/ for nominative, /-a/ for accusative, /-i/ for genitive). The feminine singular is often marked by /-at/, which is reduced to /-ah/ or /-a/ before a pause. Plural is indicated either through endings (the sound plural) or internal modification (the broken plural). Definite nouns include all proper nouns, all nouns in "construct state" and all nouns which are prefixed by the definite article /al-/. Indefinite singular nouns (other than those that end in long ā) add a final /-n/ to the case-marking vowels, giving /-un/, /-an/ or /-in/ (which is also referred to as nunation or tanwīn).

Verbs in Literary Arabic are marked for person (first, second, or third), gender, and number. They are conjugated in two major paradigms (termed perfective and imperfective, or past and non-past); two voices (active and passive); and five moods in the imperfective (indicative, imperative, subjunctive, jussive and energetic). There are also two participles (active and passive) and a verbal noun, but no infinitive. As indicated by the differing terms for the two tense systems, there is some disagreement over whether the distinction between the two systems should be most accurately characterized as tense, aspect or a combination of the two. The perfective aspect is constructed using fused suffixes that combine person, number and gender in a single morpheme, while the imperfective aspect is constructed using a combination of prefixes (primarily encoding person) and suffixes (primarily encoding gender and number). The moods other than imperative are primarily marked by suffixes (/u/ for indicative, /a/ for subjunctive, no ending for jussive, /an/ for energetic). The imperative has the endings of the jussive but lacks any prefixes. The passive is marked through internal vowel changes. Plural forms for the verb are only used when the subject is not mentioned, or is preceding it, and the feminine singular is used for all non-human plurals.

Adjectives in Literary Arabic are marked for case, number, gender and state, as for nouns. However, the plural of all non-human nouns is always combined with a singular feminine adjective, which takes the /-ah/ or /-at/ suffix.

Pronouns in Literary Arabic are marked for person, number and gender. There are two varieties, independent pronouns and enclitics. Enclitic pronouns are attached to the end of a verb, noun or preposition and indicate verbal and prepositional objects or possession of nouns. The first-person singular pronoun has a different enclitic form used for verbs (/-ni/) and for nouns or prepositions (/-ī/ after consonants, /-ya/ after vowels).

Nouns, verbs, pronouns and adjectives agree with each other in all respects. However, non-human plural nouns are grammatically considered to be feminine singular. Furthermore, a verb in a verb-initial sentence is marked as singular regardless of its semantic number when the subject of the verb is explicitly mentioned as a noun. Numerals between three and ten show "chiasmic" agreement, in that grammatically masculine numerals have feminine marking and vice-versa.

The spoken dialects have lost the case distinctions and make only limited use of the dual (it occurs only on nouns and its use is no longer required in all circumstances). They have lost the mood distinctions other than imperative, but many have since gained new moods through the use of prefixes (most often /bi-/ for indicative vs. unmarked subjunctive). They have also mostly lost the indefinite "nunation" and the internal passive. Modern Standard Arabic maintains the grammatical distinctions of Literary Arabic except that the energetic mood is almost never used; in addition, Modern Standard Arabic sometimes drop the final short vowels that indicate case and mood.

As in many other Semitic languages, Arabic verb formation is based on a (usually) triconsonantal root, which is not a word in itself but contains the semantic core. The consonants k-t-b, for example, indicate 'write', q-r-ʾ indicate 'read', ʾ-k-l indicate 'eat', etc. Words are formed by supplying the root with a vowel structure and with affixes. (Traditionally, Arabic grammarians have used the root f-ʿ-l 'do' as a template to discuss word formation.) From any particular root, up to fifteen different verbs can be formed, each with its own template; these are referred to by Western scholars as "form I", "form II", ... up through "form XV". These forms, and their associated participles and verbal nouns, are the primary means of forming vocabulary in Arabic. Forms XI to XV are extremely rare.







Writing system

Main article: Arabic alphabet

An example of a text written in Arabic calligraphy.

The Arabic alphabet derives from the Aramaic script (through Syriac and then Nabatean), to which it bears a loose resemblance like that of Coptic or Cyrillic script to Greek script. Traditionally, there were several differences between the Western (North African) and Middle Eastern version of the alphabet—in particular, the fa and qaf had a dot underneath and a single dot above respectively in the Maghreb, and the order of the letters was slightly different (at least when they were used as numerals). However, the old Maghrebi variant has been abandoned except for calligraphic purposes in the Maghreb itself, and remains in use mainly in the Quranic schools (zaouias) of West Africa. Arabic, like all other Semitic languages (except for the Latin-written Maltese, and the languages with the Ge'ez script), is written from right to left. There are several styles of script, notably Naskh which is used in print and by computers, and Ruq'ah which is commonly used in handwriting.




Calligraphy

Main article: Arabic calligraphy

After the definitive fixing of the Arabic script around 786, by Khalil ibn Ahmad al Farahidi, many styles were developed, both for the writing down of the Qur'an and other books, and for inscriptions on monuments as decoration.

Arabic calligraphy has not fallen out of use as calligraphy has in the Western world, and is still considered by Arabs as a major art form; calligraphers are held in great esteem. Being cursive by nature, unlike the Latin alphabet, Arabic script is used to write down a verse of the Qur'an, a Hadith, or simply a proverb, in a spectacular composition. The composition is often abstract, but sometimes the writing is shaped into an actual form such as that of an animal. Two of the current masters of the genre are Hassan Massoudy and Khaled Al Saa’i.

[edit] Transliteration

Further information: Arabic transliteration, Arabic Chat Alphabet

There are a number of different standards of Arabic transliteration: methods of accurately and efficiently representing Arabic with the Latin alphabet. There are multiple conflicting motivations for transliteration. Scholarly systems are intended to accurately and unambiguously represent the phonemes of Arabic, generally supplying making the phonetics more explicit than the original word in the Arabic alphabet. These systems are heavily reliant on diacritical marks such as "š" for sound equivalently written sh in English. In some cases, the sh or kh sounds can be represented by italicizing or underlining them – that way, they can be distinguished from separate s and h sounds or k and h sounds, respectively. (Compare gashouse to gash.) At first sight, this may be difficult to recognize. Less scientific systems often use digraphs (like sh and kh), which are usually more simple to read, but sacrifice the definiteness of the scientific systems. Such systems may be intended to help readers who are neither Arabic speakers nor linguists to intuitively pronounce Arabic names and phrases. An example of such a system is the Bahá'í orthography. A third type of transliteration seeks to represent an equivalent of the Arabic spelling with Latin letters, for use by Arabic speakers when Arabic writing is not available (for example, when using an ASCII communication device). An example is the system used by the US military, Standard Arabic Technical Transliteration System or SATTS, which represents each Arabic letter with a unique symbol in the ASCII range to provide a one-to-one mapping from Arabic to ASCII and back. This system, while facilitating typing on English keyboards, presents its own ambiguities and disadvantages. During the last few decades and especially since the 1990s, Western-invented text communication technologies have become prevalent in the Arab world, such as personal computers, the World Wide Web, email, Bulletin board systems, IRC, instant messaging and mobile phone text messaging. Most of these technologies originally had the ability to communicate using the Latin alphabet only, and some of them still do not have the Arabic alphabet as an optional feature. As a result, Arabic speaking users communicated in these technologies by transliterating the Arabic text using the Latin script, sometime known as IM Arabic.

To handle those Arabic letters that cannot be accurately represented using the Latin script, numerals and other characters were appropriated. For example, the numeral "3" may be used to represent the Arabic letter "ع", ayn. There is no universal name for this type of transliteration, but some have named it Arabic Chat Alphabet. Other systems of transliteration exist, such as using dots or capitalization to represent the "emphatic" counterparts of certain consonants. For instance, using capitalization, the letter "د", or daal, may be represented by d. Its emphatic counterpart, "ض", may be written as D.










Numerals

Main article: Arabic numerals

In most of present-day North Africa, the Western Arabic numerals (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) are used. However in Egypt and Arabic-speaking countries to the east of it, the Eastern Arabic numerals (٠.١.٢.٣.٤.٥.٦.٧.٨.٩) are in use. The lowest-valued digit appears on the right, so the order of digits on the page is the same as in Latin script. Sequences of digits such as telephone numbers are read from left to right, but numbers are spoken in the traditional Arabic fashion, with units and tens reversed from the modern English usage. For example, 24 is said "four and twenty", and 1975 is said "one thousand nine-hundred five and seventy."










Language-standards regulators

Academy of the Arabic Language is the name of a number of language-regulation bodies formed in Arab countries. The most active are in Damascus and Cairo. They review language development, monitor new words and approve inclusion of new words into their published standard dictionaries. They also publish old and historical Arabic manuscripts.










Studying Arabic

The Arabic language interests millions of non-Arab Muslims, who do not speak it as a native language, to learn it to different levels, mainly because it is the language of their holy book, the Quran, and all Islamic terms are Arabic. Arabic has been taught in many elementary and secondary schools, especially Muslim schools, worldwide. Many universities in the world today have classes for studying Arabic as a foreign language, as part of their foreign languages, Middle Eastern studies, religious studies, area studies departments, and even stand-alone Arabic language departments. Many Arabic language schools exist today to assist students in gaining Arabic language skills outside academic education. Most of the Arabic language schools are located in the Arab world and some Muslim world countries. Software and books with tapes are also important part of Arabic learning, as many of Arabic learners may live in places where there are no academic or Arabic language school classes available. Radio series of Arabic language classes are also provided from some radio stations. A number of websites on the Internet provide online classes for all levels as a means of distance education.













The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing several languages of Asia and Africa, such as Arabic, Persian, and Urdu. After the Latin alphabet, it is the second-most widely used alphabet around the world.[1]

The alphabet was first used to write texts in Arabic, most notably the Qurʼan, the holy book of Islam. With the spread of Islam, it came to be used to write many other languages, even outside of the Semitic family to which Arabic belongs. Examples of non-Semitic languages written with the Arabic alphabet include Persian, Urdu, Pashto, Baloch, Malay, Balti, Brahui, Panjabi (in Pakistan), Kashmiri, Sindhi (in India and Pakistan), Uyghur (in China), Kazakh (in China), Kyrgyz (in China), Azerbaijani (in Iran), Kurdish (in Iraq and Iran) and the language of the former Ottoman Empire. In order to accommodate the needs of these other languages, new letters and other symbols were added to the original alphabet.

The Arabic script is written from right to left, in a cursive style, and includes 28 basic letters. Because some of the vowels are indicated with optional symbols, it can be classified as an abjad. Just as different handwriting styles and typefaces exist in the Roman alphabet, the Arabic script has a number of different styles of calligraphy, including Naskh, Nastaʿlīq, Shahmukhi, Ruq'ah, Thuluth, Kufic, and Hijazi.



Structure

The Arabic alphabet has 28 basic letters. Adaptations of Arabic script for other languages, such as the Malay Arabic script, have additional letters. There are no distinct upper and lower case letter forms.

Both printed and written Arabic are cursive, with most of the letters directly connected to the letter that immediately follows. Each individual letter can have up to four distinct forms, based on its position within in the word. These forms are:

* Initial: at the beginning of a word; or in the middle of a word, after a non-connecting letter.
* Medial: between two connecting letters (non-connecting letters lack a medial form).
* Final: at the end of a word following a connecting letter.
* Isolated: at the end of a word following a non-connecting letter; or used independently.

Some letters look almost the same in all four forms, while others show considerable variety. In addition, some letter combinations are written as ligatures (special shapes), including lām-ʼalif.[2] Many letters look similar but are distinguished from one another by dots above or below their central part, called iʿjam. The dots are an integral part of the letter, not diacritics, because they distinguish completely different letters (and sounds). For example, the Arabic letters transliterated as b and t have the same basic shape, but b has one dot below, ب‎, and t has two dots above, ت‎.

The Arabic alphabet is an "impure" abjad. Long vowels are written, but short ones are not, so the reader must be familiar with the language to understand the missing vowels. However, in editions of the Qurʼan and in didactic works, vocalization marks are used, including the sukūn for vowel omission and the šadda for consonant gemination (consonant doubling).










Sorting

Main article: Abjad numerals

There are two collating orders for the Arabic alphabet. The original abjadī order (أبجدي) derives from the order of the Phoenician alphabet, and is therefore similar to the order of other Phoenician-derived alphabets, such as the Hebrew alphabet. The abjadī order is used for numbering. In the hijāʼī order (هجائي), similarly-shaped letters are grouped together (see the next section). The hijāʼī order is used wherever lists of names and words are sorted, as in phonebooks, classroom lists, and dictionaries.


Letters and letter variants

The following table provides all of the Unicode characters for Arabic, and none of the supplementary letters used for other languages. The transliteration given is the widespread DIN 31635 standard, with some common alternatives. See the article Romanization of Arabic for details and various other transliteration schemes.

Regarding pronunciation, the phonetic values given are those of the standard pronunciation of literary Arabic, the Dachsprache which is taught in universities. Actual pronunciation between the varieties of Arabic may vary widely. For more details concerning the pronunciation of Arabic, consult the article Arabic phonology.


Primary letters

The Arabic script is cursive, and all primary letters have conditional forms for their glyphs, depending on whether they are at the beginning, middle or end of a word, so they may exhibit four distinct forms (initial, medial, final or isolated). However, six letters have only isolated or final form, and so force the following letter (if any) to take an initial or isolated form, as if there were a word break.

For compatibility with previous standards, Unicode can encode all these forms separately; however, these forms can be inferred from their joining context, using the same encoding. The table below shows this common encoding, in addition to the compatibility encodings for their normally contextual forms (Arabic texts should be encoded today using only the common encoding, but the rendering must then infer the joining types to determine the correct glyph forms, with or without ligation). There are 29 primary letters.

The names of the Arabic letters can be thought of as abstractions of an older version where they were meaningful words in the Proto-Semitic language.



Notes

* Initially, the letter ʾalif indicated the glottal stop [ʔ], as in Phoenician. Today it is used, together with yāʾ and wāw, as a mater lectionis, that is to say a consonant standing in for a long vowel (see below). In fact, over the course of time its original consonantal value has been obscured, so ʾalif now serves either as a long vowel or as graphic support for certain diacritics (madda and hamza).

* The Arabic alphabet now uses ﺀ‎, the hamza, to denote the glottal stop, which can appear anywhere in a word. This letter, however, does not function like the others: it can be written alone or with a carrier, in which case it becomes a diacritic:
o alone: ء‎ ;
o with a carrier: إ, أ‎ (above and under a ʾalif), ؤ‎ (above a wāw), ئ‎ (above a dotless yāʾ or yāʾ hamza).

* Letters lacking an initial or medial version are never connected to the following letter, even within a word. As to the hamza, it has only a single form, since it is never connected to a preceding or following letter. However, it is sometimes combined with a wāw, yāʾ, or ʾalif, and in that case the carrier behaves like an ordinary wāw, yāʾ, or ʾalif.

In academic work, the glottal stop [ʔ] is transliterated with the right half ring sign (ʾ), while the left half ring sign (ʿ) represents a different pharyngeal, pharyngealized glottal, or epiglottal sound.




The broken alif (ʾalif maqṣūra), commonly encoded as Unicode 0x0649 (ى‎) in Arabic, is sometimes replaced in Persian or Urdu, with Unicode 0x06CC (ی), called "Persian yeh", in accordance with its pronunciation in those languages. The glyphs are identical in isolated and final form (ﻯ ﻰ), but not in initial and medial position, where the Persian yeh gains two dots below (ﻳ ﻴ). The ʾalif maqṣūra has neither an initial nor a medial form in very old unicode, though from Unicode 3.0 and later, an ʾalif maqṣūra with all positions is provided.

Although this is the common situation, the problem is not so simple, as computers recognize the "three yehs" (0x064A, 0x0649, 0x06CC) as different letters though may have identical shapes in some forms. No solution has been met yet as of May 2009. A version of an Arabic standard parallel from Unicode is proposed.



Short vowels

In everyday use handwriting, general publications, and street signs short vowels are generally not written in Arabic. Prints of Qurʼan cannot be adorned by the religious institutes that reviews them unless short vowels are properly marked, and it is generally preferred and customary to mark them whenever Qurʼan is cited in print. Children's books and school books for little children and Arabic language teaching in general have diacritics to varying degrees of observation. These are known as vocalized texts.

The Arabic writing system can not be considered complete without the diacritical marking of short vowels as they are an essential part of it in its developed state, conveying information not coded in any other way. Just like dotted letters, diacritical marking were a later addition to writing system.

Short vowels are occasionally marked where the word would otherwise be ambiguous and could not be resolved simply from context, or simply wherever they are aesthetically pleasing.

Short vowels may be written with diacritics placed above or below the consonant that precedes them in the syllable, called harakat. All Arabic vowels, long and short, follow a consonant; contrary to appearances, there is a consonant at the start of a name like Ali — in Arabic ʻAliyy — or of a word like ʼalif.




Long vowels

A long a following a consonant other than a hamza is written with a short a sign on the consonant plus an ʾalif after it; long i is written as a sign for short i plus a yāʾ; and long u as a sign for short u plus a wāw. Briefly, aʾ = ā, iy = ī and uw = ū. Long a following a hamza may be represented by an ʾalif madda or by a free hamza followed by an ʾalif.

In the table below, vowels will be placed above or below a dotted circle replacing a primary consonant letter or a šadda sign. For clarity in the table below, the primary letter on the left used to mark these long vowels are shown only in their isolated form. Please note that most consonants do connect to the left with ʾalif, wāw and yāʾ written then with their medial or final form. Additionally, the letter yāʾ in the last row may connect to the letter on its left, and then will use a medial or initial form. Use the table of primary letters to look at their actual glyph and joining types.




Sukūn and alif above

An Arabic syllable can be open (ending with a vowel) or closed (ending with a consonant).

* open: CV [consonant-vowel] (long or short vowel)
* closed: CVC (short vowel only)

When the syllable is closed, we can indicate that the consonant that closes it does not carry a vowel by marking it with a diacritic called sukūn ( ْ‎ ) to remove any ambiguity, especially when the text is not vocalized. A normal text is composed only of series of consonants; thus, the word qalb, "heart", is written qlb. The sukūn indicates where not to place a vowel: qlb could, in effect, be read qalab (meaning "he turned around"), but written with a sukūn over the l and the b (قلْبْ‎), it can only have the form qVlb. This is one step down from full vocalization, where the vowel a would also be indicated by a fatḥa: قَلْبْ‎.

The Qur’an is traditionally written in full vocalization. Outside of the Qur’an, putting a sukūn above a yāʼ — which represents [i:] —, or above a wāw — which stands for [u:] — is extremely rare, to the point that yāʼ with sukūn will be unambiguously read as the diphthong [ai], and wāw with sukūn will be read [au].

For example, the letters m-w-s-y-q-ā (موسيقى‎ with an ʼalif maqṣūra at the end of the word) will be read most naturally as the word mūsīqā (“music”). If one were to write a sukūn above the wāw, the yāʼ and the ʼalif, one would get موْسيْقىْ‎, which would be read as *mawsaykāy (note however that the final ʼalif maqṣūra, because it is an ʼalif, never takes a sukūn). The word, entirely vocalized, would be written مُوْسِيْقَى‎ in the Qur’an, or مُوسِيقَى‎ elsewhere. (The Quranic spelling would have no sukūn sign above the final ʼalif maqṣūra, but instead a miniature ʼalif above the preceding qaf consonant, which is a valid Unicode character but most Arabic computer fonts cannot in fact display this miniature ʼalif as of 2006.)

A sukūn is not placed on word-final consonants, even if no vowel is pronounced, because fully vocalised texts are always written as if the ʼiʻrāb vowels were in fact pronounced. For example, ʼAḥmad zawǧ šarr, meaning “Ahmed is a bad husband”, for the purposes of Arabic grammar and orthography, is treated as if still pronounced with full ʼiʻrāb, i.e. ʼAḥmadu zawǧun šarrun with the complete desinences.

The sukūn is also used for transliterating words into the Arabic script. The Persian word ماسک‎ (mâsk, from the English word "mask"), for example, might be written with a sukūn above the ﺱ‎ to signify that there is no vowel sound between that letter and the ک‎.







There are two kinds of numerals used in Arabic writing; standard numerals (predominant in the Arab World), and Eastern Arabic numerals (used in Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India). In Arabic, the former are referred to as "Indian numbers" (arqām hindiyyah, أرقام هندية‎). Arabic (or Hindu-Arabic) numerals are also used in Europe and the rest of the Western World in a third variant, the Western Arabic numerals, even though the Arabic alphabet is not. In most of present-day North Africa, the usual western numerals are used; in medieval times, a slightly different set was used, from which Western Arabic numerals derive, via Italy. Like Arabic alphabetic characters, Arabic numerals are written from right to left, though the units are always right-most, and the highest value left-most, just as with Western "Arabic numerals". Telephone numbers are read from left to right.











The Arabic alphabet can be traced back to the Nabataean alphabet used to write the Nabataean dialect of Aramaic. The first known text in the Arabic alphabet is a late fourth-century inscription from Jabal Ramm (50 km east of Aqaba), but the first dated one is a trilingual inscription at Zebed in Syria from 512. However, the epigraphic record is extremely sparse, with only five certainly pre-Islamic Arabic inscriptions surviving, though some others may be pre-Islamic. Later, dots were added above and below the letters to differentiate them. (The Aramaic language had fewer phonemes than the Arabic, and some originally distinct Aramaic letters had become indistinguishable in shape, so that in the early writings 15 distinct letter-shapes had to do duty for 28 sounds; cf. the similarly ambiguous Pahlavi alphabet.) The first surviving document that definitely uses these dots is also the first surviving Arabic papyrus (PERF 558), dated April 643, although they did not become obligatory until much later. Important texts like the Qur’an were frequently memorized; this practice, which is still widespread among many Muslim communities today, probably arose partially from a desire to avoid the great ambiguity of the script. (see Arabic Unicode)

Later still, vowel marks and the hamza were introduced, beginning some time in the latter half of the seventh century, preceding the first invention of Syriac and Hebrew vocalization. Initially, this was done by a system of red dots, said to have been commissioned by an Umayyad governor of Iraq, Hajjaj ibn Yusuf: a dot above = a, a dot below = i, a dot on the line = u, and doubled dots indicated nunation. However, this was cumbersome and easily confusable with the letter-distinguishing dots, so about 100 years later, the modern system was adopted. The system was finalized around 786 by al-Farahidi.



Arabic printing presses

Although Napoleon Bonaparte generally is given the credit with introducing the printing press to the Arab world upon invading Egypt in 1798, and he did indeed bring printing presses and Arabic script presses, to print the French occupation's official newspaper Al-Tanbiyyah (The Courier), the process was started several centuries earlier.

Gutenberg's invention of the printing press in 1450 was followed up by Gregorio de Gregorii, a Venetian, who in 1514 published an entire prayer book in Arabic script entitled Kitab Salat al-Sawa'i intended for the eastern Christian communities. The script was said to be crude and almost unreadable.

Famed type designer Robert Granjon working for Cardinal Ferdinando de Medici succeeded in designing elegant Arabic typefaces and the Medici press published many Christian prayer and scholarly Arabic texts in the late sixteenth century.

The first Arabic books published using movable type in the Middle East were by the Maronite monks at the Maar Quzhayy Monastery in Mount Lebanon. They transliterated the Arabic language using Syriac script. It took a fellow goldsmith like Gutenberg to design and implement the first true Arabic script movable type printing press in the Middle East. The Greek Orthodox monk Abd Allah Zakhir set up an Arabic language printing press using movable type at the monastery of Saint John at the town of Dhour El Shuwayr in Mount Lebanon, the first homemade press in Lebanon using true Arabic script. He personally cut the type molds and did the founding of the elegant typeface. He created the first true Arabic script type in the Middle East. The first book off the press was in 1734; this press continued to be used until 1899.







Languages written with the Arabic alphabet
Worldwide use of the Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet world distribution.
→ Countries where the Arabic script is the only official orthography
→ Countries where the Arabic script is used officially alongside other orthographies.

The Arabic script has been adopted for use in a wide variety of languages besides Arabic, including Persian, Kurdish, Malay, and Urdu, which are not Semitic. Such adaptations may feature altered or new characters to represent phonemes that do not appear in Arabic phonology. For example, the Arabic language lacks a voiceless bilabial plosive (the [p] sound), so many languages add their own letter to represent [p] in the script, though the specific letter used varies from language to language. These modifications tend to fall into groups: all the Indian and Turkic languages written in Arabic script tend to use the Persian modified letters, whereas Indonesian languages tend to imitate those of Jawi. The modified version of the Arabic script originally devised for use with Persian is known as the Perso-Arabic script by scholars.

In the case of Kurdish, vowels are mandatory, making the script an abugida rather than an abjad as it is for most languages. Kashmiri and Uyghur, also, write all vowels.

Use of the Arabic script in West African languages, especially in the Sahel, developed with the penetration of Islam. To a certain degree the style and usage tends to follow those of the Maghreb (for instance the position of the dots in the letters fāʼ and qāf). Additional diacritics have come into use to facilitate writing of sounds not represented in the Arabic language. The term Ajami, which comes from the Arabic root for "foreign", has been applied to Arabic-based orthographies of African languages.





Languages currently written with the Arabic alphabet

Today Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and China are the main non-Arab states using the Arabic alphabet to write one or more official national languages, including Persian, Dari, Pashto, Urdu, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Uyghur.



The Arabic alphabet is currently used for:

Middle East and Central Asia

* Kurdish in Northern Iraq, Northwest Iran, and Northeast Syria. (In Turkey, the Latin alphabet is used for Kurdish);
* Official language Persian and regional languages including Azeri, Kurdish and Baluchi in Iran;
* Official languages Dari (which differs to a degree from Persian) and Pashto and all regional languages including Uzbek in Afghanistan;
* Tajik also differs only to a minor degree from Persian, and while in Tajikistan the usual Tajik alphabet is an extended Cyrillic alphabet, there is also some use of Arabic-alphabet Persian books from Iran; in the southwestern region of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwest China Arabic script is the official one (like for Uyghur in the rest of Xinjiang);
* Garshuni (or Karshuni) originated in the seventh century AD, when Arabic was becoming the dominant spoken language in the Fertile Crescent, but Arabic script was not yet fully developed and widely read. There is evidence that writing Arabic in Garshuni influenced the style of modern Arabic script. After this initial period, Garshuni writing has continued to the present day among some Syriac Christian communities in the Arabic-speaking regions of the Levant and Mesopotamia.
* Uyghur changed to Roman script in 1969 and back to a simplified, fully voweled, Arabic script in 1983;
* Kazakh is written in Arabic in Pakistan, Iran, China, and Afghanistan; and
* Kyrgyz is written in Arabic by the 150,000 in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwest China.




East Asia

* The Chinese language is written by some Hui in the Arabic-derived Xiao'erjing alphabet.


South Asia

* Official language Urdu and regional languages including Punjabi (where the script is known as Shahmukhi), Sindhi, Kashmiri, and Balochi in Pakistan;
* Urdu and Kashmiri in India. Urdu is one of several official languages in the states of Jammu and Kashmir, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Andhra Pradesh; see List of national languages of India. Kashmiri also uses Sharada script;
* The Arwi language known as Arabic-Tamil uses the Arabic script together with the addition of 13 letters. It is mainly used in Sri Lanka and the South Indian states of Tamil Nadu for religious purposes.
* Malayalam language represented by Arabic script variant is known as Arabi Malayalam.The script has particular alphabets to represent the peculiar sounds of Malayalam.This script is mainly used in Madrassas of South Indian state of Kerala to teach Malayalam.
* The Thaana script used to write the Dhivehi language in the Maldives has vowels derived from the vowel diacritics of the Arabic script. Some of the consonants are borrowed from Arabic numerals.





Southeast Asia

* Malay in the Arabic script known as Jawi is co-official in Brunei, and used for religious purposes in Malaysia, Indonesia, Southern Thailand, Singapore, and predominantly Muslim areas of the Philippines.



Africa

* Bedawi or Beja, mainly in northeastern Sudan;
* Comorian (Comorian) in the Comoros, currently side by side with the Latin alphabet (neither is official);
* Hausa, for many purposes, especially religious (known as Ajami);
* Mandinka, widely but unofficially (known as Ajami), (another non-Latin alphabet used is N'Ko);
* Fula, especially the Pular of Guinea (known as Ajami);
* Wolof (at zaouia schools), known as Wolofal.
* Tamazight and other Berber languages were traditionally written in Arabic in the Maghreb. There is now a competing 'revival' of neo-Tifinagh.



Languages formerly written with the Arabic alphabet

Speakers of languages that were previously unwritten used Arabic script as a basis to design writing systems for their mother languages. This choice could be influenced by Arabic being their second language, the language of scripture of their faith, or the only written language they came in contact with. Additionally, since most education was once religious, choice of script was determined by the writer's religion; which meant that Muslims would use Arabic script to write whatever language they spoke. This led to Arabic script being the most widely used script during the Middle Ages. See also Languages of Muslim countries.

In the 20th century, the Arabic script was generally replaced by the Latin alphabet in the Balkans, parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, and Southeast Asia, while in the Soviet Union, after a brief period of Latinization,[6] use of the Cyrillic alphabet was mandated. Turkey changed to the Latin alphabet in 1928 as part of an internal Westernizing revolution. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, many of the Turkic languages of the ex-USSR attempted to follow Turkey's lead and convert to a Turkish-style Latin alphabet. However, renewed use of the Arabic alphabet has occurred to a limited extent in Tajikistan, whose language's close resemblance to Persian allows direct use of publications from Iran.[7]

Most languages of the Iranian languages family continue to use Arabic script, as well as the Indo-Aryan languages of Pakistan and of Muslim populations in India, but the Bengali language of Bangladesh is written in the Bengali alphabet.




Africa

* Afrikaans (as it was first written among the "Cape Malays", see Arabic Afrikaans);
* Berber in North Africa, particularly Tachelhit in Morocco (still being considered, along with Tifinagh and Latin for Tamazight);
* Harari, by the Harari people of the Harari Region in Ethiopia. Now uses the Ge'ez alphabet.
* For the West African languages mentioned above - Hausa, Fula, Mandinka, and Wolof - the Latin alphabet has officially replaced Arabic transcriptions for use in literacy and education;
* Malagasy in Madagascar (script known as Sorabe);
* Nubian;
* Swahili (has used the Latin alphabet since the 19th century);
* Somali (see Wadaad's writing) has used only the Latin alphabet since 1972;
* Songhay in West Africa, particularly in Timbuktu;
* Yoruba in West Africa (this was probably limited, but still notable)



Europe

* Albanian;
* Azeri in Azerbaijan (now written in the Latin alphabet and Cyrillic alphabet scripts in Azerbaijan);
* Bosnian (only for literary purposes; currently written in the Latin alphabet);
* Polish (among ethnic Tatars);
* Belarusian (among ethnic Tatars; see Belarusian Arabic alphabet);
* Mozarabic, Aragonese, Portuguese, and Spanish, when the Muslims ruled the Iberian peninsula (see Aljamiado);
* Romanian in certain areas of Transylvania (until the 17th century a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire





Central Asia and Russian Federation

* Bashkir (officially for some years from the October Revolution of 1917 until 1928, changed to Latin, now uses the Cyrillic script);
* Chaghatai across Central Asia;
* Chechen (sporadically from the adoption of Islam; officially from 1917 until 1928);[8]
* Kazakh in Kazakhstan (until 1930s, changed to Latin, now uses the Cyrillic script);
* Kyrgyz in Kyrgyzstan (until 1930s, changed to Latin, now uses the Cyrillic script);
* Tatar before 1928 (changed to Latin Janalif), reformed in 1880s (iske imlâ), 1918 (yaña imlâ — with the omission of some letters);
* Chinese and Dungan, among the Hui people (script known as Xiao'erjing);
* Turkmen in Turkmenistan (changed to Latin in 1929, then to the Cyrillic script, then back to Latin in 1991);
* Uzbek in Uzbekistan (changed to Latin, now uses the Cyrillic script);
* All the Muslim peoples of the USSR between 1918-1928 (many also earlier), including Bashkir, Chechen, Kazakh, Tajik etc. After 1928 their script became Latin, then later Cyrillic.





Southeast Asia

* Malay in Malaysia and Indonesia; Maguindanaon and Tausug in the Philippines.

[edit] South Asia

* Arwi, a hybrid Arabic and Tamil dialect that was used extensively by the Muslim minority of Tamil Nadu state of India and the Moors of Sri Lanka.

[edit] Middle East

* Turkish in the Ottoman Empire was written in Arabic script until Mustafa Kemal Atatürk declared the change to Roman script in 1928. This form of Turkish is now known as Ottoman Turkish and is held by many to be a different language, due to its much higher percentage of Persian and Arabic loanwords (Ottoman Turkish alphabet);
* Kurdish (Kurmanji dialect) in Turkey and Syria was written in Arabic script until 1932, when a modified Kurdish Latin alphabet was introduced by Jaladat Ali Badirkhan in Syria.



Southeast Asia

* Malay in Malaysia and Indonesia; Maguindanaon and Tausug in the Philippines.

[edit] South Asia

* Arwi, a hybrid Arabic and Tamil dialect that was used extensively by the Muslim minority of Tamil Nadu state of India and the Moors of Sri Lanka.

[edit] Middle East

Computers and the Arabic alphabet

The Arabic alphabet can be encoded using several character sets, including ISO-8859-6 and Unicode, in the latter thanks to the "Arabic segment", entries U+0600 to U+06FF. However, neither of these sets indicate the form each character should take in context. It is left to the rendering engine to select the proper glyph to display for each character.




Arabic keyboard
Arabic keyboard layout

Keyboards designed for different nations have different layouts so that proficiency in one style of keyboard such as Iraq's does not transfer to proficiency in another keyboard such as Saudi Arabia's. Differences can include the location of non-alphabetic characters such as '

All Arabic keyboards allow typing Roman characters, e.g., for URL in a web browser. Thus, each Arabic keyboard has both Arabic and Roman characters marked on the keys. Usually the Roman characters of an Arabic keyboard conform to the QWERTY layout, but in North Africa, where French is the most common language typed using the Roman characters, the Arabic keyboards are AZERTY.

When one wants to encode a particular written form of a character, there are extra code points provided in Unicode which can be used to express the exact written form desired. The range Arabic presentation forms A (U+FB50 to U+FDFF) contain ligatures while the range Arabic presentation forms B (U+FE70 to U+FEFF) contains the positional variants. These effects are better achieved in Unicode by using the zero width joiner and non-joiner, as these presentation forms are deprecated in Unicode, and should generally only be used within the internals of text-rendering software, when using Unicode as an intermediate form for conversion between character encodings, or for backwards compatibility with implementations that rely on the hard-coding of glyph forms.

Finally, the Unicode encoding of Arabic is in logical order, that is, the characters are entered, and stored in computer memory, in the order that they are written and pronounced without worrying about the direction in which they will be displayed on paper or on the screen. Again, it is left to the rendering engine to present the characters in the correct direction, using Unicode's bi-directional text features. In this regard, if the Arabic words on this page are written left to right, it is an indication that the Unicode rendering engine used to display them is out-of-date.[9][10]

[edit] Handwriting recognition

The first software program of its kind in the world that identifies Arabic handwriting in real time has been developed by researchers at Ben-Gurion University.

The prototype enables the user to write Arabic words by hand on an electronic screen, which then analyzes the text and translates it into printed Arabic letters in a thousandth of a second. The error rate is less than three percent, according to Dr. Jihad El-Sana, from BGU's department of computer sciences, who developed the system along with master's degree student Fadi Biadsy


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